Frequency Reuse

Frequency Reuse is the scheme in which allocation and reuse of channels throughout a coverage region is done. Each cellular base station is allocated a group of radio channels or Frequencies sub-bands to be used within a small geographic area known as a cell. The shape of the cell is Hexagonal. The process of selecting and allocating the frequency sub-bands for all of the cellular base station within a system is called Frequency reuse or Frequency Planning.

Silent Features of using Frequency Reuse:

  • Frequency reuse improve the spectral efficiency and signal Quality (QoS).
  • Frequency reuse classical scheme proposed for GSM systems offers a protection against interference.
  • The number of times a frequency can be reused is depend on the tolerance capacity of the radio channel from the nearby transmitter that is using the same frequencies.
  • In Frequency Reuse scheme, total bandwidth is divided into different sub-bands that are used by cells.
  • Frequency reuse scheme allow WiMax system operators to reuse the same frequencies at different cell sites.

Cell with same letter use the same set of channels group or frequencies sub-band.

To find the total number of channel allocated to a cell:

S = Total number of duplex channels available to use
k = Channels allocated to each cell (k<S)
N = Total number of cells or Cluster Size

Then Total number of channels (S) will be,

S = kN 

Frequency Reuse Factor = 1/N

In the above diagram cluster size is 7 (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) thus frequency reuse factor is 1/7.

N is the number of cells which collectively use the complete set of available frequencies is called a Cluster. If a Cluster is replicated or repeated ‘M’ times within the cellular system, then Capacity, C, will be,

C = MkN = MS

In Frequency reuse there are several cells that use the same set of frequencies. These cells are called Co-Channel Cells. These Co-Channel cells results in interference. So to avoid the Interference cells that use the same set of channels or frequencies are separated from one another by a larger distances.

Condition to avoid Co-Channel Interference:
Neighboring cells won’t have the same edge or same set of frequency.

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