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Food Preservation – Definition, Importance and Methods

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Living organic entity that is the exact moment to be seen by the unaided eye, particularly a solitary celled organic entity, for example, a bacterium is called a microorganism. Microorganisms are ordered into four significant gatherings predominantly microbes, parasites, protozoa, and some green growth. They can make due under various kinds of climatic climates, going from super cold environments to blistering summers and deserts to damp, sloppy grounds. They are likewise found inside the assemblages of creatures including people, air, water, soil, food, and different things. A portion of the microorganisms is unicellular like microbes, while some have advanced, multi-cell bodies like mold. Microorganisms can be put to various purposes, be it in the making of liquor, bread, cake, or meds or in farming or cleaning the climate.

Microorganisms can be put to various purposes, be it in the making of liquor, bread, cake, or drugs or in horticulture or cleaning the climate. Known as cordial microorganism. A portion of the microorganisms is unicellular like microbes, while some have advanced, multi-cell bodies like mold. Microorganisms are hurtful in many ways. A portion of the microorganisms causes illnesses in people, plants furthermore, and creatures. Such illness-causing microorganisms are called microbes. A few microorganisms ruin food, apparel, and cowhide.

Food Preservation


Food conservation is the most imperative piece of the food business. Defilement of the food by microorganisms prompts an adjustment of the variety and taste of the is vital to embrace legitimate strategies for food protection.

We can protect food by restraining the development of microorganisms in food and easing back the oxidation of fats.

Interaction of forestalling the waste of food things by the activity of microorganisms is called food preservation. Microorganisms follow up on food things and ruin them. Certain synthetic substances restrain the development of microscopic organisms and increment the existence of prepared food.

The capacity and conservation of entire food grains and prepared food are unique. Organisms follow up on prepared food since it needs dampness to raise, an entire food is normally absent of any and all dampness. Certain straightforward safeguarding techniques can be completed at our home.

Methods of Food Preservation

By Chemical method 

Synthetic additives are utilized in food conservation by significant food enterprises as they are innocuous to people. Sodium metabisulfite and sodium benzoate are generally utilized substance additives. For the most part, salts and eatable oils are utilized to control their development, and these are named additives. Additives are utilized to really take a look at microbial movement in this strategy for the safeguarding of food.

Corrosive additives are likewise added to keep food from decay in pickles, squashes, jams, canned food, and so forth. A few normal additives:

  • Sodium chloride (salt) in Meat, Amla, crude mango, fish, and so on.
  • Eatable Oils in a pickle. Etc. 
  • Sodium benzoate in Fruit juices, syrups, jams, jams, and so on.
  • Sodium metabisulfite in Dried organic products/vegetables, syrups, organic product juices, and so forth.

Physical Method

Physical methods include-

By Oil and Vinegar

Oil and vinegar keep an eye on deterioration in pickles. Products of the soil are additionally oiled to safeguard them from getting spoiled. Vinegar has the properties to pause and dial back the waste of food over an extensive stretch of time. This is additionally utilized ordinarily, as the microorganisms can’t live in such circumstances. This is generally utilized in making pickles.

By Common Salt

Vegetables are cured involving salt, as salt eliminates water and kills microscopic organisms and parasite cells. Common salt otherwise called sodium chloride is utilized as an additive at home.

Consequently, salt is added to fish and meat to remove dampness content with the goal that microbial action is hindered.

It is likewise added to tamarind, crude mangoes, and so forth. A salt arrangement, called brackish water, is utilized during the time spent pickling.

By packing and storage

Dry leafy foods and vegetables are safeguarded in water/airproof/air-fixed holders. The shortfall of air forestalls the development of microbes or growths.

Food ought to be put away in legitimately fixed parcels or impenetrable compartments. Organisms need dampness, air, and so on for development. Accordingly, such compartments would hinder their development.

By Sanitization 

Sanitization is a course of superheating and cooling the drinks to kill pathogenic organisms. Sanitization guarantees the flavor of the drink, for example, milk doesn’t get annihilated.

By heat treatment

Food things can be warmed to obliterate miniature life forms that can in any case over-indulge the food

An illustration of intense therapy is Sterilization.
Disinfection is a cycle where food is warmed to a high temperature (more noteworthy than 100oC) for an adequate time frame. In this strategy, both the holder and content are cleaned.

For instance, Feeding jugs of infants are sanitized to keep them liberated from microbes.

Conceptual Questions 

Question 1: What is meant by sugaring? 


The most common way of parching food is by getting dried out first and afterward loading it with unadulterated sugar is known as sugaring. Sugaring is utilized to save food, a few organic products are protected along these lines.

Question 2:  What is meant by Pasteurization? 


Sanitization is a cycle wherein milk is warmed to around 70 degrees Celsius for around 15 to 30 seconds and afterward unexpectedly chilled and put away. This cycle was found by Louis Pasteur.

Question 3: What do friendly microorganisms do? 


  • Well, disposed microorganisms does tidying up the climate by debasing dead and rot substances. It increments soil ripeness by fixing nitrogen and additionally used in the arrangement of curd, bread, and cake.
  • The wellspring of the generally utilised medications, anti-toxins, and immunization, A sickness-causing microorganism called a microbe that produces antibodies against it when it enters our body.

Question 4: Explain how food is preserved by heat and cold treatments? 


It is a typical practice to bubble milk to store it. The strategy for warming milk to dispose of the organisms present in it is called sanitization. Likewise, putting away food at low temperatures additionally forestalls the development of these microorganisms.

Question 5: Effects caused by microorganisms? 


In creatures, the infection causes foot and mouth sicknesses. Microorganisms ruin the food varieties by deteriorating the food material. A few microorganisms ruin calfskin and garments. Microorganisms are answerable for food contamination.

Last Updated : 14 Jul, 2022
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