An ecosystem refers to a complex structure of the interconnected network, which comprises biotic and abiotic elements. The Biotic elements include all living organisms which include plants, animals, and also microorganisms. The abiotic elements include non-living beings which are important for survival and include soil, water, and climate, and among the biotic elements, the most important are the flora and fauna.
Flora and Fauna
Meaning of Flora and Fauna
The term flora means all plant life and fauna represents all animal life. Flora refers to native plants present in one area but does include new species that are introduced as well. Fauna means the name which is given to a collective animal that lives in a certain area or period.
Meaning of Flora
Flora is derived from a Latin word, which means “Goddess of the Flower”. Flora is used as a collective term for a group of plantlife that is found in a particular region and the plant kingdom is represented with the help of this name. Classification and differentiation are based on many factors and some vital ones are where it is grown or where it is found. Some plants grow in desert regions or some in water, some in hilly and others endemic mostly to a specific location geographically.
Adaptation of the plant species is possible and an example of this is Cactus plants which are seen naturally in deserts and have adaptations that modify their characteristics and leaves to preserve water and also protection from predators. Agricultural flora includes plants that are cultivated by men for their use and also there is horticulture which is for growing ornamental and also decorative flowers, known as garden flora.
Meaning of Fauna
Fauna is used to describe animal life that is indigenous to a region. According to mythology, Fauna or “Faunus” is the name of a goddess who represents fertility and another meaning is “Fauns” which means “Forest spirits”.
There are many more divisions within fauna as compared to flora and hence the classification of fauna is much more complex:
- Fishes come under Pisci Fauna.
- Birds are categorized under Avifauna.
- Microorganisms come under the animal kingdom and are known as Microfauna.
- All undiscovered animals are under cryptofauna.
Many animals are thought to have existed but have eluded the scientific community and are classified into what is called cryptofauna or cryptids. Few of them have been recently documented by actual findings and scientific discoveries; one of that examples is colossal squid. Many life forms exist on earth and various life forms depend on each other for survival and also are exploited.
Conservation of flora and fauna is of utmost importance for the survival of future generations. The importance of biosphere reserves, national parks, zoos, and sanctuaries are instances and measures by the government for the conservation of flora and fauna. Tiger Project was also launched by the Government of India to protect and save the tiger population.
Importance of Flora and Fauna
Flora and fauna are very important to us, because of many reasons, some of the most important ones are mentioned below:
Maintaining the Ecological Balance
Flora and fauna are very important for the ecological balance and existence of human beings. The oxygen which is consumed by fauna for respiration is released by the flora for respiration. Fauna, on receiving the same, liberates carbon dioxide which is consumed by the flora for the process of photosynthesis. Flora and fauna are very important for humankind for both medicinal and also food offerings. The balance of the ecosystem is maintained by the animals by predating on fellow flora and fauna.
Animal droppings are a very important source of flora and fauna for day-to-day activities and should be made in used holistically for many different purposes.
The aesthetic value of the earth is possible because of the spread of flora and fauna across it. Visitation to various biosphere reserves, national parks and zoos, forests as well as botanical gardens are for enjoying the beauty of the different landmarks and also explains the importance of flora and fauna for day-to-day activities.
Expansion of Local Economies
Tourism is one of the important criteria for expanding the local economies around us. Flora and fauna of the Amazon forest, for example, attract numerous scientists and tourists throughout the year attracting huge revenue through tourism for the country. Some important areas known for their biodiversity include the Caribbean, Indonesia, and Panama due to widespread flora and fauna.
Flora and Fauna of India
The flora and fauna in India are different from a collection of plants and animals. The famous fauna of India incorporates 500 distinct collections of well-evolved mammals, 2000 types of birds, 30.000 sorts of bugs, and a few collections of fish, creatures of land and water, and reptiles. Elephants, Royal Bengal Tiger, rhinos, etc. are some of the common fauna found in the country.
India also contains a variety of flora which includes temperate forests, deciduous forests, oaks, rhododendrons, pine, etc. are some important flora of the country.
- India is, as a matter of fact, one of the world’s most extravagant nations in the wording of its huge swath of organic variety. This is conceivably two times or threefold the number yet to be found.
- A few evaluations propose that at any rate 10% of India’s recorded wild verdure also, 20% of its vertebrates are on the compromised list. Large numbers of these would presently be classified as ‘basic’.
- That is on the edge of elimination like the cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, and timberland spotted.
- Nobody can say the number of, truth be told species that might have previously been lost.
- The forests and tree cover in the Indian nation are assessed at 807276 sq. km which is 24.56 percent of the complete topographical region(thick timberland 12.4 percent; open forest 9.26 percent; and mangrove 0.15 percent).
- As per the State of Forest Report (2019), the thick forest cover has expanded by 3,976 sq. km starting around 2017.
Categories of existing plants and animal species
The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has classified six existing species, they are following:
- Extinct Species: These are species that are not found after searches of known or possible regions where they might happen. Animal categories might be terminated from a neighborhood, nation, mainland, or the whole earth. Examples of such species are the Asiatic cheetah and pink head duck.
- Rare Species: Species with little populace might move into the imperiled or on the other hand weak class if the negative variables influence them to keep on working. Examples of such species are the Himalayan earthy colored bear, wild Asiatic bison, desert fox furthermore, hornbill, and so forth.
- Normal Species: The populace level of species viewed as typical for their endurance, like dairy cattle, sal, pine, rodents, and so forth.
- Endemic Species: These are species that are just found in a few specific regions typically secluded by normal or geological boundaries. Examples of such species are the Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, and Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.
- Vulnerable Species: The species which are most susceptible to being endangered in near future are known as vulnerable species. Examples are one-horned Rhinoceros, blackbuck, and so forth.
- Endangered Species: These are species that are at risk of annihilation. The endurance of such species is troublesome if the negative factors that have prompted a downfall in their populace keep on working. Examples of such species are a dark buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion followed macaque, sangria, and so forth.
Factors Responsible for Depletion
Various factors have prompted the depletion of flora and fauna. Are shifting cultivation, mining activities, large-scale development projects, and overpopulation, are the main cause many more are explained below
- Unnecessary utilization of regular assets for satisfying human necessities like wood, bark, leaves, elastic, meds, colors, food, fuel, grub, fertilizer, and so forth.
- The forest ecosystem is a vault of a portion of the country’s most important timberland items, minerals, and different assets that satisfy the needs of the quickly growing modern metropolitan economy.
- Mining is another important factor behind deforestation. It has upset the regular environment of numerous species and impeded the relocation course of several others, including the incomparable Indian elephant.
Reasons for Decline in Indian Biodiversity
There are different reasons for the decline in India’s biodiversity, Hunting, Forest fires, Poisoning, Environmental pollution, over-exploration, etc. are the main reasons for the decline in India’s biodiversity.
- Hunting is the broad administrator of loss of biodiversity. Hunting exercises apply an extensive weight on natural life, inciting a massive slump of natural life and prompting upset and wasteful biological systems.
- Air contaminations like ash, residue, alkali, or carbon dioxide can straightforwardly and in a roundabout way impact biodiversity.
- Environmental change, close to different parts, for example, living space misfortune, land debasement, hunting, overexploitation of specific species, and so forth, is turning up as a high danger to biodiversity.
- Difference between Flora and Fauna
- Conservation of Flora and Fauna
- Why India has reach heritage of Flora and Fauna?
- Ladakh- Flora, Fauna, People and Climate
- Sahara Desert- Flora, Fauna, People and Climate
FAQs on Flora and Fauna
What is flora?
The plant life found in one particular area and are naturally occurring as well as indigenous native plant are known as flora.
What is fauna?
Fauna refers to all the animal species which is found in one particular region at a particular time and usually are naturally occurring animal species of one particular area.
What is the classification of flora and fauna?
Flora has been classified into native flora, agricultural, horticultural and weed. Fauna is classified into various categories like cryofauna, cryptofauna, infauna, microfauna etc.
What is the difference between flora and fauna?
Flora refers to all plant and fauna refers to all anumal life in a particular area. Fauna are not able to prepare their food and are depended on flora for food production and consumption.
What is the importance of flora and fauna?
Flora and fauna are part of the ecosystem and are also interdependent on each other for their survival and the ecosystem becomes imbalance if there is any adverse situation on flora or fauna, like that of extinction.
List the prominent flora and fauna of India.
Important flora species include pines, deodars, lotus, milkworts, spiderwort etc. and prominent fauna include Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, snow leopard etc.
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