# Flatten BST to sorted list | Increasing order

Given a binary search tree, the task is to flatten it to a sorted list. Precisely, the value of each node must be lesser than the values of all the nodes at its right, and its left node must be NULL after flattening. We must do it in O(H) extra space where ‘H’ is the height of BST.

**Examples:**

Input:5 / \ 3 7 / \ / \ 2 4 6 8Output:2 3 4 5 6 7 8Input:1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 4 \ 5Output:1 2 3 4 5

**Approach:** A simple approach will be to recreate the BST from its in-order traversal. This will take O(N) extra space were N is the number of node in BST.

To improve upon that, we will simulate in order traversal of a binary tree as follows:

- Create a dummy node.
- Create a variable called ‘prev’ and make it point to the dummy node.
- Perform in-order traversal and at each step.
- Set prev -> right = curr
- Set prev -> left = NULL
- Set prev = curr

This will improve the space complexity to O(H) in worst case as in-order traversal takes O(H) extra space.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

`// C++ implementation of the approach ` `#include <bits/stdc++.h> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `// Node of the binary tree ` `struct` `node { ` ` ` `int` `data; ` ` ` `node* left; ` ` ` `node* right; ` ` ` `node(` `int` `data) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `this` `->data = data; ` ` ` `left = NULL; ` ` ` `right = NULL; ` ` ` `} ` `}; ` ` ` `// Function to print flattened ` `// binary Tree ` `void` `print(node* parent) ` `{ ` ` ` `node* curr = parent; ` ` ` `while` `(curr != NULL) ` ` ` `cout << curr->data << ` `" "` `, curr = curr->right; ` `} ` ` ` `// Function to perform in-order traversal ` `// recursively ` `void` `inorder(node* curr, node*& prev) ` `{ ` ` ` `// Base case ` ` ` `if` `(curr == NULL) ` ` ` `return` `; ` ` ` `inorder(curr->left, prev); ` ` ` `prev->left = NULL; ` ` ` `prev->right = curr; ` ` ` `prev = curr; ` ` ` `inorder(curr->right, prev); ` `} ` ` ` `// Function to flatten binary tree using ` `// level order traversal ` `node* flatten(node* parent) ` `{ ` ` ` `// Dummy node ` ` ` `node* dummy = ` `new` `node(-1); ` ` ` ` ` `// Pointer to previous element ` ` ` `node* prev = dummy; ` ` ` ` ` `// Calling in-order traversal ` ` ` `inorder(parent, prev); ` ` ` ` ` `prev->left = NULL; ` ` ` `prev->right = NULL; ` ` ` `node* ret = dummy->right; ` ` ` ` ` `// Delete dummy node ` ` ` `delete` `dummy; ` ` ` `return` `ret; ` `} ` ` ` `// Driver code ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `node* root = ` `new` `node(5); ` ` ` `root->left = ` `new` `node(3); ` ` ` `root->right = ` `new` `node(7); ` ` ` `root->left->left = ` `new` `node(2); ` ` ` `root->left->right = ` `new` `node(4); ` ` ` `root->right->left = ` `new` `node(6); ` ` ` `root->right->right = ` `new` `node(8); ` ` ` ` ` `// Calling required function ` ` ` `print(flatten(root)); ` ` ` ` ` `return` `0; ` `} ` |

*chevron_right*

*filter_none*

**Output:**

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

## Recommended Posts:

- Flatten BST to sorted list | Decreasing order
- Flatten Binary Tree in order of Level Order Traversal
- Flatten binary tree in order of post-order traversal
- Flatten Binary Tree in order of Zig Zag traversal
- Flatten a binary tree into linked list | Set-2
- Flatten a binary tree into linked list | Set-3
- Flatten a binary tree into linked list
- Sort only non-prime numbers of an array in increasing order
- Print array elements in alternatively increasing and decreasing order
- Sorted order printing of a given array that represents a BST
- Print Binary Tree levels in sorted order
- Print Binary Tree levels in sorted order | Set 2 (Using set)
- Print Binary Tree levels in sorted order | Set 3 (Tree given as array)
- Sorted Linked List to Balanced BST
- Print a Binary Tree in Vertical Order | Set 3 (Using Level Order Traversal)

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