# Find zeroes to be flipped so that number of consecutive 1’s is maximized

• Difficulty Level : Hard
• Last Updated : 02 Mar, 2022

Given a binary array and an integer m, find the position of zeroes flipping which creates maximum number of consecutive 1’s in array.
Examples :

```Input:   arr[] = {1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1}
m = 2
Output:  5 7
We are allowed to flip maximum 2 zeroes. If we flip
arr and arr, we get 8 consecutive 1's which is
maximum possible under given constraints

Input:   arr[] = {1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1}
m = 1
Output:  7
We are allowed to flip maximum 1 zero. If we flip
arr, we get 5 consecutive 1's which is maximum
possible under given constraints.

Input:   arr[] = {0, 0, 0, 1}
m = 4
Output:  0 1 2
Since m is more than number of zeroes, we can flip
all zeroes.```

A Simple Solution is to consider every subarray by running two loops. For every subarray, count number of zeroes in it. Return the maximum size subarray with m or less zeroes. Time Complexity of this solution is O(n2).

A Better Solution is to use auxiliary space to solve the problem in O(n) time.
For all positions of 0’s calculate left[] and right[] which defines the number of consecutive 1’s to the left of i and right of i respectively.
For example, for arr[] = {1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1} and m = 1, left = 2 and right = 2, left = 2 and right = 0, left = 0 and right = 3.
left[] and right[] can be filled in O(n) time by traversing array once and keeping track of last seen 1 and last seen 0. While filling left[] and right[], we also store indexes of all zeroes in a third array say zeroes[]. For above example, this third array stores {2, 5, 6}
Now traverse zeroes[] and for all consecutive m entries in this array, compute the sum of 1s that can be produced. This step can be done in O(n) using left[] and right[].

## C++

 `// C++ program to find positions of zeroes flipping which``// produces maximum number of consecutive 1's``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `// m is maximum of number zeroes allowed to flip``// n is size of array``vector<``int``> maximized_one(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `m)``{``    ``// Left array``    ``int` `left[n] = { 0 };``    ``// Right array``    ``int` `right[n] = { 0 };``    ``// Array will contain zeroes position``    ``vector<``int``> zero_pos;``    ``// Stores count``    ``int` `count = 0;``    ``int` `previous_index_of_zero = -1;``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++) {``        ``if` `(arr[i]) {``            ``count++;``        ``}``        ``else` `{``            ``left[i] = count;``            ``zero_pos.push_back(i);``            ``if` `(previous_index_of_zero != i``                ``&& previous_index_of_zero != -1) {``                ``right[previous_index_of_zero] = count;``            ``}``            ``count = 0;``            ``// To keep track of the previous index of zeroes``            ``previous_index_of_zero = i;``        ``}``    ``}``    ``right[previous_index_of_zero] = count;` `    ``int` `max_one = -1;``    ``vector<``int``> result_index;``    ``int` `i = 0;` `    ``while` `(i <= (zero_pos.size()) - m) {``        ``int` `temp = 0;``        ``vector<``int``> index;` `        ``for` `(``int` `c = 0; c < m; c++) {``            ``temp += left[zero_pos[i + c]]``                    ``+ right[zero_pos[i + c]] + 1;``            ``// Index is updated``            ``index.push_back(zero_pos[i + c]);``        ``}``        ``// Decrement temp by m-1 because when we are``        ``// calculating temp we are adding 1 in it. So, in``        ``// order to get exact count of 1. This decrement is``        ``// applicable only when value of m is greater than 1``        ``temp = temp - (m - 1);``        ``// Updating max value when we get the new max temp``        ``// and result_index as well``        ``if` `(temp > max_one) {``            ``max_one = temp;``            ``result_index = index;``        ``}``        ``i += 1;``    ``}` `    ``return` `result_index;``}``// Driver program``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `arr[] = { 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1 };``    ``int` `m = 2;``    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);``    ``cout << ``"Index of zeroes that are flipped: "``;``    ``vector<``int``> result_index = maximized_one(arr, n, m);``    ``for` `(``auto` `i : result_index) {``        ``cout << i << ``" "``;``    ``}``    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java program to find positions of zeroes flipping which``// produces maximum number of consecutive 1's` `import` `java.util.*;` `class` `GFG{` `// m is maximum of number zeroes allowed to flip``// n is size of array``static` `Vector maximized_one(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `m)``{``    ``// Left array``    ``int` `left[] = ``new` `int``[n];``    ``// Right array``    ``int` `right[] = ``new` `int``[n];``    ``// Array will contain zeroes position``    ``Vector zero_pos = ``new` `Vector<>();``    ``// Stores count``    ``int` `count = ``0``;``    ``int` `previous_index_of_zero = -``1``;``    ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < n; i++) {``        ``if` `(arr[i]!=``0``) {``            ``count++;``        ``}``        ``else` `{``            ``left[i] = count;``            ``zero_pos.add(i);``            ``if` `(previous_index_of_zero != i``                ``&& previous_index_of_zero != -``1``) {``                ``right[previous_index_of_zero] = count;``            ``}``            ``count = ``0``;``            ``// To keep track of the previous index of zeroes``            ``previous_index_of_zero = i;``        ``}``    ``}``    ``right[previous_index_of_zero] = count;` `    ``int` `max_one = -``1``;``    ``Vector result_index = ``new` `Vector<>();``    ``int` `i = ``0``;` `    ``while` `(i <= (zero_pos.size()) - m) {``        ``int` `temp = ``0``;``        ``Vector index = ``new` `Vector<>();` `        ``for` `(``int` `c = ``0``; c < m; c++) {``            ``temp += left[zero_pos.elementAt(i + c)]``                    ``+ right[zero_pos.elementAt(i + c)] + ``1``;``            ``// Index is updated``            ``index.add(zero_pos.elementAt(i + c));``        ``}``        ``// Decrement temp by m-1 because when we are``        ``// calculating temp we are adding 1 in it. So, in``        ``// order to get exact count of 1. This decrement is``        ``// applicable only when value of m is greater than 1``        ``temp = temp - (m - ``1``);``        ``// Updating max value when we get the new max temp``        ``// and result_index as well``        ``if` `(temp > max_one) {``            ``max_one = temp;``            ``result_index = index;``        ``}``        ``i += ``1``;``    ``}` `    ``return` `result_index;``}``// Driver program``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``{``    ``int` `arr[] = { ``1``, ``0``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``, ``1` `};``    ``int` `m = ``2``;``    ``int` `n = arr.length;``    ``System.out.print(``"Index of zeroes that are flipped: ["``);``    ``Vector result_index = maximized_one(arr, n, m);``    ``for` `(``int` `i : result_index) {``        ``System.out.print(i+ ``" "``);``    ``}``    ``System.out.print(``"]"``);``}``}` `// This code contributed by umadevi9616`

## Python3

 `# Python3 code for the above approach` `def` `maximized_one(arr,n,m):``  ` `    ``# Left array``    ``left ``=` `[``0``]``*``n``    ` `    ``# Right array``    ``right ``=` `[``0``]``*``n      ``    ` `    ``# Array will contain zeroes position``    ``zero_pos ``=` `[]      ``    ` `    ``# Stores count``    ``count ``=` `0`          `    ``previous_index_of_zero ``=` `-``1``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(n):``        ``if` `arr[i] ``=``=` `1``:``            ``count``+``=``1``        ``if` `arr[i] ``=``=` `0``:``            ``left[i] ``=` `count``            ``zero_pos.append(i)``            ``if` `previous_index_of_zero !``=``i ``and` `previous_index_of_zero!``=``-``1``:``                ``right[previous_index_of_zero] ``=` `count``            ``count ``=` `0``            ` `            ``# To keep track of the previous index of zeroes``            ``previous_index_of_zero ``=` `i         ``    ``right[previous_index_of_zero] ``=` `count     ` `    ``# print(left)``    ``# print(right)``    ``# print(zero_pos)``    ``max_one ``=` `-``1``    ``result_index ``=` `0``    ``i``=``0``    ``while``(i<``=``len``(zero_pos)``-``m):``        ``temp ``=` `0``        ``index ``=` `[]``        ``for` `c ``in` `range``(m):``          ` `            ``# print(zero_pos[i+c],left[zero_pos[i+c]],right[zero_pos[i+c]])``            ``temp ``+``=` `left[zero_pos[i``+``c]] ``+` `right[zero_pos[i``+``c]] ``+``1``            ` `            ``# Index is updated``            ``index.append(zero_pos[i``+``c]) ``            ` `        ``# Decrement temp by m-1 because when we are calculating temp``        ``# we are adding 1 in it.``        ``# So, in order to get exact count of 1.``        ``# This decrement is applicable only when value of m is greater than 1``        ``temp ``=` `temp``-``(m``-``1``)``        ` `        ``# Updating max value when we get the new max temp``        ``# and result_index as well``        ``if` `temp > max_one:                 ``            ``max_one ``=` `temp``            ``result_index ``=` `index``        ``i``+``=``1``        ` `    ``return` `result_index``     ` `# Driver Code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:``    ``arr ``=` `[``1``, ``0``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``, ``1``]``    ``n ``=` `len``(arr)``    ``m ``=` `2``    ``print``(``'Index of zeroes that are flipped: '``,maximized_one(arr,n,m))`

## C#

 `// C# program to find positions of zeroes flipping which``// produces maximum number of consecutive 1's``using` `System;``using` `System.Collections.Generic;` `public` `class` `GFG``{` `// m is maximum of number zeroes allowed to flip``// n is size of array``static` `List<``int``> maximized_one(``int` `[]arr, ``int` `n, ``int` `m)``{``    ``// Left array``    ``int` `[]left = ``new` `int``[n];``  ` `    ``// Right array``    ``int` `[]right = ``new` `int``[n];``  ` `    ``// Array will contain zeroes position``    ``List<``int``> zero_pos = ``new` `List<``int``>();``  ` `    ``// Stores count``    ``int` `count = 0;``    ``int` `previous_index_of_zero = -1;``    ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < n; j++) {``        ``if` `(arr[j] != 0) {``            ``count++;``        ``}``        ``else` `{``            ``left[j] = count;``            ``zero_pos.Add(j);``            ``if` `(previous_index_of_zero != j``                ``&& previous_index_of_zero != -1) {``                ``right[previous_index_of_zero] = count;``            ``}``            ``count = 0;``          ` `            ``// To keep track of the previous index of zeroes``            ``previous_index_of_zero = j;``        ``}``    ``}``    ``right[previous_index_of_zero] = count;` `    ``int` `max_one = -1;``    ``List<``int``> result_index = ``new` `List<``int``>();``    ``int` `i = 0;` `    ``while` `(i <= (zero_pos.Count) - m) {``        ``int` `temp = 0;``        ``List<``int``> index = ``new` `List<``int``>();` `        ``for` `(``int` `c = 0; c < m; c++) {``            ``temp += left[zero_pos[i + c]]``                    ``+ right[zero_pos[i + c]] + 1;``          ` `            ``// Index is updated``            ``index.Add(zero_pos[i + c]);``        ``}``      ` `        ``// Decrement temp by m-1 because when we are``        ``// calculating temp we are adding 1 in it. So, in``        ``// order to get exact count of 1. This decrement is``        ``// applicable only when value of m is greater than 1``        ``temp = temp - (m - 1);``      ` `        ``// Updating max value when we get the new max temp``        ``// and result_index as well``        ``if` `(temp > max_one) {``            ``max_one = temp;``            ``result_index = index;``        ``}``        ``i += 1;``    ``}` `    ``return` `result_index;``}``  ` `// Driver program``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``{``    ``int` `[]arr = { 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1 };``    ``int` `m = 2;``    ``int` `n = arr.Length;``    ``Console.Write(``"Index of zeroes that are flipped: ["``);``    ``List<``int``> result_index = maximized_one(arr, n, m);``    ``foreach` `(``int` `i ``in` `result_index) {``        ``Console.Write(i+ ``" "``);``    ``}``    ``Console.Write(``"]"``);``}``}` `// This code is contributed by umadevi9616`

## Javascript

 ``
Output
`Index of zeroes that are flipped:  [5, 7]`

An Efficient Solution can solve the problem in O(n) time and O(1) space. The idea is to use Sliding Window for the given array. The solution is taken from here
Let us use a window covering from index wL to index wR. Let the number of zeros inside the window be zeroCount. We maintain the window with at most m zeros inside.
The main steps are:
– While zeroCount is no more than m: expand the window to the right (wR++) and update the count zeroCount.
– While zeroCount exceeds m, shrink the window from left (wL++), update zeroCount;
– Update the widest window along the way. The positions of output zeros are inside the best window.
Below is the implementation of the idea.

## C++

 `// C++ program to find positions of zeroes flipping which``// produces maximum number of consecutive 1's``#include``using` `namespace` `std;` `// m is maximum of number zeroes allowed to flip``// n is size of array``void` `findZeroes(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `m)``{``    ``// Left and right indexes of current window``    ``int` `wL = 0, wR = 0;` `    ``// Left index and size of the widest window``    ``int` `bestL = 0, bestWindow = 0;` `    ``// Count of zeroes in current window``    ``int` `zeroCount = 0;` `    ``// While right boundary of current window doesn't cross``    ``// right end``    ``while` `(wR < n)``    ``{``        ``// If zero count of current window is less than m,``        ``// widen the window toward right``        ``if` `(zeroCount <= m)``        ``{``            ``if` `(arr[wR] == 0)``              ``zeroCount++;``            ``wR++;``        ``}` `        ``// If zero count of current window is more than m,``        ``// reduce the window from left``        ``if` `(zeroCount > m)``        ``{``            ``if` `(arr[wL] == 0)``              ``zeroCount--;``            ``wL++;``        ``}` `        ``// Update widest window if this window size is more``        ``if` `((wR-wL > bestWindow) && (zeroCount<=m))``        ``{``            ``bestWindow = wR-wL;``            ``bestL = wL;``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``// Print positions of zeroes in the widest window``    ``for` `(``int` `i=0; i

## Java

 `//Java to find positions of zeroes flipping which``// produces maximum number of consecutive 1's``class` `Test``{``    ``static` `int` `arr[] = ``new` `int``[]{``1``, ``0``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``};``    ` `    ``// m is maximum of number zeroes allowed to flip``    ``static` `void` `findZeroes(``int` `m)``    ``{``        ``// Left and right indexes of current window``        ``int` `wL = ``0``, wR = ``0``;``    ` `        ``// Left index and size of the widest window``        ``int` `bestL = ``0``, bestWindow = ``0``;``    ` `        ``// Count of zeroes in current window``        ``int` `zeroCount = ``0``;``    ` `        ``// While right boundary of current window doesn't cross``        ``// right end``        ``while` `(wR < arr.length)``        ``{``            ``// If zero count of current window is less than m,``            ``// widen the window toward right``            ``if` `(zeroCount <= m)``            ``{``                ``if` `(arr[wR] == ``0``)``                ``zeroCount++;``                ``wR++;``            ``}``    ` `            ``// If zero count of current window is more than m,``            ``// reduce the window from left``            ``if` `(zeroCount > m)``            ``{``                ``if` `(arr[wL] == ``0``)``                ``zeroCount--;``                ``wL++;``            ``}``    ` `            ``// Update widest window if this window size is more``            ``if` `((wR-wL > bestWindow) && (zeroCount<=m))``            ``{``                ``bestWindow = wR-wL;``                ``bestL = wL;``            ``}``        ``}``    ` `        ``// Print positions of zeroes in the widest window``        ``for` `(``int` `i=``0``; i

## Python3

 `# Python3 program to find positions``# of zeroes flipping which produces``# maximum number of consecutive 1's` `# m is maximum of number zeroes allowed``# to flip, n is size of array``def` `findZeroes(arr, n, m) :``    ` `    ``# Left and right indexes of current window``    ``wL ``=` `wR ``=` `0` `    ``# Left index and size of the widest window``    ``bestL ``=` `bestWindow ``=` `0` `    ``# Count of zeroes in current window``    ``zeroCount ``=` `0` `    ``# While right boundary of current``    ``# window doesn't cross right end``    ``while` `wR < n:``        ` `        ``# If zero count of current window is less than m,``        ``# widen the window toward right``        ``if` `zeroCount <``=` `m :``            ``if` `arr[wR] ``=``=` `0` `:``                ``zeroCount ``+``=` `1``            ``wR ``+``=` `1` `        ``# If zero count of current window is more than m,``        ``# reduce the window from left``        ``if` `zeroCount > m :``            ``if` `arr[wL] ``=``=` `0` `:``                ``zeroCount ``-``=` `1``            ``wL ``+``=` `1` `        ``# Update widest window if``        ``# this window size is more``        ``if` `(wR``-``wL > bestWindow) ``and` `(zeroCount<``=``m) :``            ``bestWindow ``=` `wR ``-` `wL``            ``bestL ``=` `wL` `    ``# Print positions of zeroes``    ``# in the widest window``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``, bestWindow):``        ``if` `arr[bestL ``+` `i] ``=``=` `0``:``            ``print` `(bestL ``+` `i, end ``=` `" "``)` `# Driver program``arr ``=` `[``1``, ``0``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``0``, ``1``, ``1``]``m ``=` `2``n ``=` `len``(arr)``print` `(``"Indexes of zeroes to be flipped are"``, end ``=` `" "``)``findZeroes(arr, n, m)` `# This code is contributed by Shreyanshi Arun.`

## C#

 `// C# to find positions of zeroes flipping which``// produces maximum number of consecutive 1's``using` `System;` `class` `Test``{``    ``static` `int` `[]arr = ``new` `int``[]{1, 0, 0, 1, 1,``                                ``0, 1, 0, 1, 1};``    ` `    ``// m is maximum of number zeroes allowed to flip``    ``static` `void` `findZeroes(``int` `m)``    ``{``        ``// Left and right indexes of current window``        ``int` `wL = 0, wR = 0;``    ` `        ``// Left index and size of the widest window``        ``int` `bestL = 0, bestWindow = 0;``    ` `        ``// Count of zeroes in current window``        ``int` `zeroCount = 0;``    ` `        ``// While right boundary of current``        ``// window doesn't cross right end``        ``while` `(wR < arr.Length)``        ``{``            ``// If zero count of current window is less``            ``// than m, widen the window toward right``            ``if` `(zeroCount <= m)``            ``{``                ``if` `(arr[wR] == 0)``                ``zeroCount++;``                ``wR++;``            ``}``    ` `            ``// If zero count of current window is more than m,``            ``// reduce the window from left``            ``if` `(zeroCount > m)``            ``{``                ``if` `(arr[wL] == 0)``                ``zeroCount--;``                ``wL++;``            ``}``    ` `            ``// Update widest window if this window size is more``            ``if` `((wR-wL > bestWindow) && (zeroCount<=m))``            ``{``                ``bestWindow = wR-wL;``                ``bestL = wL;``            ``}``        ``}``    ` `        ``// Print positions of zeroes in the widest window``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < bestWindow; i++)``        ``{``            ``if` `(arr[bestL + i] == 0)``            ``Console.Write(bestL + i + ``" "``);``        ``}``    ``}``    ` `    ``// Driver method to test the above function``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``int` `m = 2;``        ``Console.Write(``"Indexes of zeroes to be flipped are "``);``        ``findZeroes(m);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by parashar`

## PHP

 ` ``\$m``)``        ``{``            ``if` `(``\$arr``[``\$wL``] == 0)``            ``\$zeroCount``--;``            ``\$wL``++;``        ``}` `        ``// Update widest window if``        ``// this window size is more``        ``if` `((``\$wR``-``\$wL` `> ``\$bestWindow``) && (``\$zeroCount``<=``\$m``))``        ``{``            ``\$bestWindow` `= ``\$wR` `- ``\$wL``;``            ``\$bestL` `= ``\$wL``;``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``// Print positions of zeroes``    ``// in the widest window``    ``for``(``\$i` `= 0; ``\$i` `< ``\$bestWindow``; ``\$i``++)``    ``{``        ``if` `(``\$arr``[``\$bestL` `+ ``\$i``] == 0)``        ``echo` `\$bestL` `+ ``\$i` `. ``" "``;``    ``}``}` `    ``// Driver Code``    ``\$arr` `= ``array``(1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1);``    ``\$m` `= 2;``    ``\$n` `= sizeof(``\$arr``)/sizeof(``\$arr``);``    ``echo` `"Indexes of zeroes to be flipped are "``;``    ``findZeroes(``\$arr``, ``\$n``, ``\$m``);``    ``return` `0;` `// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.``?>`

## Javascript

 ``
Output
`Indexes of zeroes to be flipped are 5 7 `