Find XOR of all elements in an Array

Given an array arr[] containing integers of size N, the task is to find the XOR of this array.

Examples:

Input: arr[] = {2, 4, 7}
Output: 1
Explanation:
XOR of the array = 2 ^ 4 ^ 7 = 1

Input: arr[] = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 }
Output: 4

Approach: In order to find the XOR of all elements in the array, we simply iterate through the array and find the XOR using ‘^’ operator. Therefore, the following steps are followed to compute the answer:



  1. Create a variable to store the XOR of the array as a result.
  2. For each element in the array, find the XOR of the element and the result variable using ‘^’ operator.
  3. Finally, the result variable stores the XOR of all elements in the array.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

CPP

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// C++ program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
  
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Function to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
int xorOfArray(int arr[], int n)
{
    // Resultant variable
    int xor_arr = 0;
  
    // Iterating through every element in
    // the array
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
  
        // Find XOR with the result
        xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
    }
  
    // Return the XOR
    return xor_arr;
}
  
// Driver Code
int main()
{
  
    int arr[] = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
  
    // Function call
    cout << xorOfArray(arr, n) << endl;
  
    return 0;
}

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Java

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// Java program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
class GFG {
      
    // Function to find the XOR of
    // all elements in the array
    static int xorOfArray(int arr[], int n)
    {
        // Resultant variable
        int xor_arr = 0;
      
        // Iterating through every element in
        // the array
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      
            // Find XOR with the result
            xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
        }
      
        // Return the XOR
        return xor_arr;
    }
      
    // Driver Code
    public static void main (String[] args)
    {
      
        int arr[] = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 };
        int n = arr.length;
      
        // Function call
        System.out.println(xorOfArray(arr, n));
  
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by Yash_R

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Python3

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# Python3 program to find the XOR of
# all elements in the array
  
# Function to find the XOR of
# all elements in the array
def xorOfArray(arr, n):
  
    # Resultant variable
    xor_arr = 0
  
    # Iterating through every element in
    # the array
    for i in range(n):
  
        # Find XOR with the result
        xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i]
  
    # Return the XOR
    return xor_arr
  
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
    arr = [3, 9, 12, 13, 15]
    n = len(arr)
  
    # Function call
    print(xorOfArray(arr, n))
  
# This code is contributed by mohit kumar 29

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C#

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// C# program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
using System;
  
class GFG {
      
    // Function to find the XOR of
    // all elements in the array
    static int xorOfArray(int []arr, int n)
    {
        // Resultant variable
        int xor_arr = 0;
      
        // Iterating through every element in
        // the array
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      
            // Find XOR with the result
            xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
        }
      
        // Return the XOR
        return xor_arr;
    }
      
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main (string[] args)
    {
      
        int []arr = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 };
        int n = arr.Length;
      
        // Function call
        Console.WriteLine(xorOfArray(arr, n));
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by AnkitRai01

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Output:

4

Time Complexity: O(N), where N is the size of the array.

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