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Find XOR of all elements in an Array

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Given an array arr[] containing integers of size N, the task is to find the XOR of this array.
Examples: 

Input: arr[] = {2, 4, 7} 
Output:
Explanation: 
XOR of the array = 2 ^ 4 ^ 7 = 1
Input: arr[] = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 } 
Output:

Approach: In order to find the XOR of all elements in the array, we simply iterate through the array and find the XOR using ‘^’ operator. Therefore, the following steps are followed to compute the answer: 

  1. Create a variable to store the XOR of the array as a result.
  2. For each element in the array, find the XOR of the element and the result variable using ‘^’ operator.
  3. Finally, the result variable stores the XOR of all elements in the array.

Below is the implementation of the above approach: 

CPP




// C++ program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
int xorOfArray(int arr[], int n)
{
    // Resultant variable
    int xor_arr = 0;
 
    // Iterating through every element in
    // the array
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
 
        // Find XOR with the result
        xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
    }
 
    // Return the XOR
    return xor_arr;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
 
    int arr[] = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
 
    // Function call
    cout << xorOfArray(arr, n) << endl;
 
    return 0;
}


C




// C program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
#include <stdio.h>
 
// Function to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
int xorOfArray(int arr[], int n)
{
    // Resultant variable
    int xor_arr = 0;
 
    // Iterating through every element in
    // the array
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
 
        // Find XOR with the result
        xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
    }
 
    // Return the XOR
    return xor_arr;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
 
    int arr[] = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
 
    // Function Call
    printf("%d\n", xorOfArray(arr, n));
    return 0;
}
 
// This code is contributed by phalashi.


Java




// Java program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
import java.util.*;
import java.io.*;
class GFG {
     
    // Function to find the XOR of
    // all elements in the array
    static int xorOfArray(int arr[], int n)
    {
        // Resultant variable
        int xor_arr = 0;
     
        // Iterating through every element in
        // the array
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
     
            // Find XOR with the result
            xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
        }
     
        // Return the XOR
        return xor_arr;
    }
     
    // Driver Code
    public static void main (String[] args)
    {
     
        int arr[] = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 };
        int n = arr.length;
     
        // Function call
        System.out.println(xorOfArray(arr, n));
 
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Yash_R


Python3




# Python3 program to find the XOR of
# all elements in the array
 
# Function to find the XOR of
# all elements in the array
def xorOfArray(arr, n):
 
    # Resultant variable
    xor_arr = 0
 
    # Iterating through every element in
    # the array
    for i in range(n):
 
        # Find XOR with the result
        xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i]
 
    # Return the XOR
    return xor_arr
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
    arr = [3, 9, 12, 13, 15]
    n = len(arr)
 
    # Function call
    print(xorOfArray(arr, n))
 
# This code is contributed by mohit kumar 29


C#




// C# program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
using System;
 
class GFG {
     
    // Function to find the XOR of
    // all elements in the array
    static int xorOfArray(int []arr, int n)
    {
        // Resultant variable
        int xor_arr = 0;
     
        // Iterating through every element in
        // the array
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
     
            // Find XOR with the result
            xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
        }
     
        // Return the XOR
        return xor_arr;
    }
     
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main (string[] args)
    {
     
        int []arr = { 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 };
        int n = arr.Length;
     
        // Function call
        Console.WriteLine(xorOfArray(arr, n));
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by AnkitRai01


Javascript




<script>
 
// JavaScript program to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
 
// Function to find the XOR of
// all elements in the array
function xorOfArray(arr, n)
{
    // Resultant variable
    let xor_arr = 0;
 
    // Iterating through every element in
    // the array
    for (let i = 0; i < n; i++) {
 
        // Find XOR with the result
        xor_arr = xor_arr ^ arr[i];
    }
 
    // Return the XOR
    return xor_arr;
}
 
// Driver Code
    let arr = [ 3, 9, 12, 13, 15 ];
    let n = arr.length;
 
    // Function call
    document.write(xorOfArray(arr, n) + "<br>");
 
// This code is contributed by Surbhi Tyagi.
 
</script>


Output

4

Time Complexity: O(N), where N is the size of the array.
Auxiliary Space: O(1), no extra space is required, so it is a constant.


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Last Updated : 04 Jan, 2023
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