# Find winner of an election where votes are represented as candidate names

Given an array of names of candidates in an election. A candidate’s name in the array represents a vote cast on the candidate. Print the name of candidates who received the maximum vote. If there is a tie, print a lexicographically smaller name.

Examples:

Input:  votes[] = {“john”, “johnny”, “jackie”, “johnny”, “john”, “jackie”, “jamie”, “jamie”, “john”, “johnny”, “jamie”, “johnny”, “john”}
Output: John
Explanation: We have four Candidates with name as ‘John’, ‘Johnny’, ‘jamie’, ‘jackie’. The candidates John and Johny get maximum votes. Since John is alphabetically smaller.

Input: votes[] = {“virat”, “rohit”, “rishabh”, “rohit”, “virat”, “rohit”}
Output: rohit
Explanation: We have three Candidates with name as ‘virat’, ‘rohit’, ‘rishabh’. rohit get maximum votes.

Recommended Practice

## Naive Approach:

A simple solution is to run two loops and count the occurrences of every word. And then find the maximum count.

• Iterate over every string
• Count the occurrence of the current string in the given votes[]
• Maximise the result if count > previous count
• return the result

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C#

 using System; using System.Linq; using System.Collections.Generic;   class Gfg {   public static void findWinner(List votes)   {     int n = votes.Count;     int prevCount = 0;     string result = "";       // Iterate over every string     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {       int count = 0;         // Count the occurrence of current string in the       // given votes[]       for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {         if (votes[i] == votes[j]) {           count++;         }           // Maximise the result if count > previous         // count         if (count > prevCount) {           prevCount = count;           result = votes[i];         }         else if (count == prevCount) {           if (votes[i].CompareTo(result) < 0)             result = votes[i];         }       }     }       // return the result     Console.WriteLine(result);   }   public static void Main(string[] args)   {     List votes = new List() {       "john", "johnny", "jackie", "johnny", "john",       "jackie", "jamie", "jamie", "john",       "johnny", "jamie", "johnny", "john"       };     findWinner(votes);   } }   // This code is contributed by divya_p123.

## Javascript

 function findWinner(votes) {     let n = votes.length;     let prevCount = 0;     let result = "";         // Iterate over every string     for (let i = 0; i < n; i++) {         let count = 0;             // Count the occurrence of current string in the         // given votes[]         for (let j = 0; j < n; j++) {             if (votes[i] == votes[j])                 count++;                 // Maximise the result if count > previous count             if (count > prevCount) {                 prevCount = count;                 result = votes[i];             }             else if (count == prevCount) {                 result = Math.min(result, votes[i]);             }         }     }         // return the result     console.log(result); }     // Driver code let votes     = ["john", "johnny", "jackie", "johnny",         "john", "jackie", "jamie", "jamie",         "john", "johnny", "jamie", "johnny",         "john"];     findWinner(votes);   // This code is contributed by factworx412

Output

john

Time Complexity: O(n * n * MAX_WORD_LEN).
Auxiliary Space: O(MAX_WORD_LEN)

## Find winner of an election where votes are represented as candidate names using Hashing:

An efficient solution is to use Hashing. Insert all votes in a hash map and keep track of counts of different names. Finally, traverse the map and print the person with the maximum votes.

Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

• Create a map of string, value pair
• Now iterate on the votes array and increment the count of every string
• Traverse the map and the string having maximum count store it as a string variable
• If there is a tie pick the smaller one

Below is the Implementation of the above approach:

## C++

 // C++ program to find winner in an election. #include "bits/stdc++.h" using namespace std;   /* We have four Candidates with name as 'John',   'Johnny', 'jamie', 'jackie'.    The votes in String array are as per the    votes casted. Print the name of candidates    received Max vote. */ void findWinner(vector& votes) {       // Insert all votes in a hashmap     unordered_map mapObj;     for (auto& str : votes) {         mapObj[str]++;     }       // Traverse through map to find the candidate     // with maximum votes.     int maxValueInMap = 0;     string winner;     for (auto& entry : mapObj) {         string key = entry.first;         int val = entry.second;         if (val > maxValueInMap) {             maxValueInMap = val;             winner = key;         }           // If there is a tie, pick lexicographically         // smaller.         else if (val == maxValueInMap && winner > key)             winner = key;     }     cout << winner << endl; }   // Driver code int main() {     vector votes         = { "john", "johnny", "jackie", "johnny",             "john", "jackie", "jamie",  "jamie",             "john", "johnny", "jamie",  "johnny",             "john" };       findWinner(votes);     return 0; }

## Java

 // Java program to find winner in an election. import java.util.*;   public class ElectoralVotingBallot {     /* We have four Candidates with name as 'John',       'Johnny', 'jamie', 'jackie'.        The votes in String array are as per the        votes casted. Print the name of candidates        received Max vote. */     public static void findWinner(String votes[])     {         // Insert all votes in a hashmap         Map map             = new HashMap();         for (String str : votes) {             if (map.keySet().contains(str))                 map.put(str, map.get(str) + 1);             else                 map.put(str, 1);         }           // Traverse through map to find the candidate         // with maximum votes.         int maxValueInMap = 0;         String winner = "";         for (Map.Entry entry :              map.entrySet()) {             String key = entry.getKey();             Integer val = entry.getValue();             if (val > maxValueInMap) {                 maxValueInMap = val;                 winner = key;             }               // If there is a tie, pick lexicographically             // smaller.             else if (val == maxValueInMap                      && winner.compareTo(key) > 0)                 winner = key;         }         System.out.println(winner);     }       // Driver code     public static void main(String[] args)     {         String[] votes             = { "john", "johnny", "jackie", "johnny",                 "john", "jackie", "jamie",  "jamie",                 "john", "johnny", "jamie",  "johnny",                 "john" };           findWinner(votes);     } }

## Python3

 # Python3 program to find winner in an election. from collections import defaultdict   ''' We have four Candidates with name as 'John', 'Johnny', 'jamie', 'jackie'. The votes in String array are as per the votes casted. Print the name of candidates received Max vote. '''     def findWinner(votes):       # Insert all votes in a hashmap     mapObj = defaultdict(int)       for st in votes:         mapObj[st] += 1       # Traverse through map to find the     # candidate with maximum votes.     maxValueInMap = 0     winner = ""       for entry in mapObj:         key = entry         val = mapObj[entry]           if (val > maxValueInMap):             maxValueInMap = val             winner = key           # If there is a tie, pick lexicographically         # smaller.         else if (val == maxValueInMap and                  winner > key):             winner = key       print(winner)     # Driver code if __name__ == "__main__":       votes = ["john", "johnny", "jackie",              "johnny", "john", "jackie",              "jamie", "jamie", "john",              "johnny", "jamie", "johnny",              "john"]       findWinner(votes)   # This code is contributed by ukasp

## C#

 // C# program to find winner in an election. using System; using System.Collections.Generic;   public class ElectoralVotingBallot {     /* We have four Candidates with name as 'John',     'Johnny', 'jamie', 'jackie'.     The votes in String array are as per the     votes casted. Print the name of candidates     received Max vote. */     public static void findWinner(String[] votes)     {         // Insert all votes in a hashmap         Dictionary map             = new Dictionary();         foreach(String str in votes)         {             if (map.ContainsKey(str))                 map[str] = map[str] + 1;             else                 map.Add(str, 1);         }           // Traverse through map to find the candidate         // with maximum votes.         int maxValueInMap = 0;         String winner = "";         foreach(KeyValuePair entry in map)         {             String key = entry.Key;             int val = entry.Value;             if (val > maxValueInMap) {                 maxValueInMap = val;                 winner = key;             }               // If there is a tie, pick lexicographically             // smaller.             else if (val == maxValueInMap                      && winner.CompareTo(key) > 0)                 winner = key;         }         Console.WriteLine(winner);     }       // Driver code     public static void Main(String[] args)     {         String[] votes             = { "john", "johnny", "jackie", "johnny",                 "john", "jackie", "jamie",  "jamie",                 "john", "johnny", "jamie",  "johnny",                 "john" };           findWinner(votes);     } }   // This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992

## Javascript



Output

john

Time Complexity: O(N), where N is the total number of votes.
Auxiliary Space: O(N), since unordered_map data structure is used.

Another efficient solution is to use Trie. Please refer most frequent word in an array of strings.

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