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Find the player who wins the game of placing alternate + and – signs in front of array elements

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  • Last Updated : 30 Apr, 2021

Given an array arr[] of length, N, the task is to find the winner of a game played by two players A and B optimally, by performing the following operations:

  • Player A makes the first move.
  • Players need to alternately place + and sign in front of array elements in their turns.
  • After having placed signs in front of all array elements, player A wins if the difference of all the elements is even.
  • Otherwise, player B wins.

Examples:

Input: arr[] = {1, 2}
Output: B
Explanation:
All possible ways the game can be played out are:
(+1) – (+2) = -1 
(−1) – (+2) = -3 
(+1) – (-2) = 3 
(-1) – (-2) = 1
Since the differences are odd in all the possibilities, B wins.

Input: arr[] = {1, 1, 2}
Output: A
Explanation: 
All possible ways the game can be played out are:
(1) – (1) – (2) = -2 
(1) – (1) – (-2) = 2
(1) – (-1) – (2) = 0
(1) – (-1) – (-2) = 4
(-1) – (1) – (2) = -4
(-1) – (1) – (-2) = 0
(-1) – (-1) – (2) = -2
(-1) – (-1) – (-2) = 4
Since the differences are even in all the possibilities, A wins.

Naive Approach: The simplest approach is to generate all the possible 2N combinations in which the signs can be placed in the array and check for each combination, check if player A can win or not. If found to be true for any permutation, then print A. Otherwise, player B wins.

Time Complexity: O(2N * N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

Efficient Approach: Follow the steps below to optimize the above approach:

  • Initialize a variable, say diff, to store the sum of the array elements.
  • Traverse the array arr[], over the range of indices [1, N], and update diff by subtracting arr[i] to it. 
  • If diff % 2 is found to be equal to 0, then print ‘A’. Otherwise, print ‘B’.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++




// C++ program for the
// above approach
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to check which
// player wins the game
void checkWinner(int arr[], int N)
{
    // Stores the difference between
    // +ve and -ve array elements
    int diff = 0;
 
    // Traverse the array
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
        // Update diff
        diff -= arr[i];
    }
 
    // Checks if diff is even
    if (diff % 2 == 0) {
        cout << "A";
    }
    else {
        cout << "B";
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    // Given Input
    int arr[] = { 1, 2 };
    int N = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
 
    // Function call to check
    // which player wins the game
    checkWinner(arr, N);
 
    return 0;
}

Python3




# Python3 program for the
# above approach
 
# Function to check which
# player wins the game
def checkWinner(arr, N):
 
    # Stores the difference between
    # +ve and -ve array elements
    diff = 0
 
    # Traverse the array
    for i in range(N):
        # Update diff
        diff -= arr[i]
 
    # Checks if diff is even
    if (diff % 2 == 0):
        print("A")
 
    else:
        print("B")
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__":
 
    # Given Input
    arr = [1, 2]
    N = len(arr)
 
    # Function call to check
    # which player wins the game
    checkWinner(arr, N)
 
    # This code is contributed by ukasp.

Java




// Java program for the
// above approach
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG
{
// Function to check which
// player wins the game
static void checkWinner(int arr[], int N)
{
    // Stores the difference between
    // +ve and -ve array elements
    int diff = 0;
 
    // Traverse the array
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
        // Update diff
        diff -= arr[i];
    }
 
    // Checks if diff is even
    if (diff % 2 == 0) {
        System.out.println("A");
    }
    else {
        System.out.println("B");
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    // Given Input
    int arr[] = { 1, 2 };
    int N = arr.length;
    // Function call to check
    // which player wins the game
    checkWinner(arr, N);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Stream-Cipher

C#




// C# program for the above approach
using System;
 
class GFG{
 
// Function to check which
// player wins the game
static void checkWinner(int[] arr, int N)
{
     
    // Stores the difference between
    // +ve and -ve array elements
    int diff = 0;
 
    // Traverse the array
    for(int i = 0; i < N; i++)
    {
         
        // Update diff
        diff -= arr[i];
    }
 
    // Checks if diff is even
    if (diff % 2 == 0)
    {
        Console.Write("A");
    }
    else
    {
        Console.Write("B");
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main()
{
     
    // Given Input
    int[] arr = { 1, 2 };
    int N = arr.Length;
     
    // Function call to check
    // which player wins the game
    checkWinner(arr, N);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by sanjoy_62

Javascript




<script>
// JavaScript program for the above approach
 
// Function to check which
// player wins the game
function checkWinner(arr, N)
{
    // Stores the difference between
    // +ve and -ve array elements
    let diff = 0;
  
    // Traverse the array
    for (let i = 0; i < N; i++) {
        // Update diff
        diff -= arr[i];
    }
  
    // Checks if diff is even
    if (diff % 2 == 0) {
        document.write("A");
    }
    else {
        document.write("B");
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
 
     // Given Input
    let arr = [ 1, 2 ];
    let N = arr.length;
    // Function call to check
    // which player wins the game
    checkWinner(arr, N);
     
</script>

Output: 

B

 

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

 


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