# Find Second largest element in an array

Given an array of integers, our task is to write a program that efficiently finds the second largest element present in the array.
Example:

```Input: arr[] = {12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1}
Output: The second largest element is 34.
Explanation: The largest element of the
array is 35 and the second
largest element is 34

Input: arr[] = {10, 5, 10}
Output: The second largest element is 5.
Explanation: The largest element of
the array is 10 and the second
largest element is 5

Input: arr[] = {10, 10, 10}
Output: The second largest does not exist.
Explanation: Largest element of the array
is 10 there is no second largest element
```

Simple Solution
Approach: The idea is to sort the array in descending order and then return the second element which is not equal to the largest element from the sorted array.

## C++14

 `// C++ program to find second largest` `// element in an array`   `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `/* Function to print the second largest elements */` `void` `print2largest(``int` `arr[], ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `    ``int` `i, first, second;`   `    ``/* There should be atleast two elements */` `    ``if` `(arr_size < 2) {` `        ``printf``(``" Invalid Input "``);` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``// sort the array` `    ``sort(arr, arr + arr_size);`   `    ``// start from second last element` `    ``// as the largest element is at last` `    ``for` `(i = arr_size - 2; i >= 0; i--) {` `        ``// if the element is not` `        ``// equal to largest element` `        ``if` `(arr[i] != arr[arr_size - 1]) {` `            ``printf``(``"The second largest element is %d\n"``, arr[i]);` `            ``return``;` `        ``}` `    ``}`   `    ``printf``(``"There is no second largest element\n"``);` `}`   `/* Driver program to test above function */` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `arr[] = { 12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1 };` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);` `    ``print2largest(arr, n);` `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## Java

 `// Java program to find second largest` `// element in an array` `import` `java.util.*;` `class` `GFG{`   `// Function to print the ` `// second largest elements` `static` `void` `print2largest(``int` `arr[], ` `                          ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `  ``int` `i, first, second;`   `  ``// There should be ` `  ``// atleast two elements` `  ``if` `(arr_size < ``2``) ` `  ``{` `    ``System.out.printf(``" Invalid Input "``);` `    ``return``;` `  ``}`   `  ``// Sort the array` `  ``Arrays.sort(arr);`   `  ``// Start from second last element` `  ``// as the largest element is at last` `  ``for` `(i = arr_size - ``2``; i >= ``0``; i--) ` `  ``{` `    ``// If the element is not` `    ``// equal to largest element` `    ``if` `(arr[i] != arr[arr_size - ``1``]) ` `    ``{` `      ``System.out.printf(``"The second largest "` `+ ` `                        ``"element is %d\n"``, arr[i]);` `      ``return``;` `    ``}` `  ``}`   `  ``System.out.printf(``"There is no second "` `+` `                    ``"largest element\n"``);` `}`   `// Driver code` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `{` `  ``int` `arr[] = {``12``, ``35``, ``1``, ``10``, ``34``, ``1``};` `  ``int` `n = arr.length;` `  ``print2largest(arr, n);` `}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by gauravrajput1`

## C#

 `// C# program to find second largest` `// element in an array` `using` `System;`   `class` `GFG{`   `// Function to print the ` `// second largest elements` `static` `void` `print2largest(``int` `[]arr, ` `                          ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `  ``int` `i;`   `  ``// There should be ` `  ``// atleast two elements` `  ``if` `(arr_size < 2) ` `  ``{` `    ``Console.Write(``" Invalid Input "``);` `    ``return``;` `  ``}`   `  ``// Sort the array` `  ``Array.Sort(arr);`   `  ``// Start from second last element` `  ``// as the largest element is at last` `  ``for``(i = arr_size - 2; i >= 0; i--) ` `  ``{` `      `  `    ``// If the element is not` `    ``// equal to largest element` `    ``if` `(arr[i] != arr[arr_size - 1]) ` `    ``{` `      ``Console.Write(``"The second largest "` `+ ` `                    ``"element is {0}\n"``, arr[i]);` `      ``return``;` `    ``}` `  ``}`   `  ``Console.Write(``"There is no second "` `+` `                ``"largest element\n"``);` `}`   `// Driver code` `public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)` `{` `  ``int` `[]arr = { 12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1 };` `  ``int` `n = arr.Length;` `  `  `  ``print2largest(arr, n);` `}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Amit Katiyar`

Output:

```The second largest element is 34

```

Complexity Analysis:

• Time Complexity: O(n log n).
Time required to sort the array is O(n log n).
• Auxiliary space: O(1).
As no extra space is required.

Better Solution:
Approach: The approach is to traverse the array twice. In the first traversal find the maximum element. In the second traversal find the greatest element less than the element obtained in the first traversal.

## C++14

 `// C++ program to find second largest` `// element in an array`   `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `/* Function to print the second largest elements */` `void` `print2largest(``int` `arr[], ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `    ``int` `i, first, second;`   `    ``/* There should be atleast two elements */` `    ``if` `(arr_size < 2) {` `        ``printf``(``" Invalid Input "``);` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``int` `largest = second = INT_MIN;`   `    ``// find the largest element` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) {` `        ``largest = max(largest, arr[i]);` `    ``}`   `    ``// find the second largest element` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) {` `        ``if` `(arr[i] != largest)` `            ``second = max(second, arr[i]);` `    ``}` `    ``if` `(second == INT_MIN)` `        ``printf``(``"There is no second largest element\n"``);` `    ``else` `        ``printf``(``"The second largest element is %d\n"``, second);` `}`   `/* Driver program to test above function */` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `arr[] = { 12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1 };` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);` `    ``print2largest(arr, n);` `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## Java

 `// Java program to find second largest` `// element in an array` `class` `GFG{`   `// Function to print the second largest elements ` `static` `void` `print2largest(``int` `arr[], ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `    ``int` `i, first, second;`   `    ``// There should be atleast two elements` `    ``if` `(arr_size < ``2``)` `    ``{` `        ``System.out.printf(``" Invalid Input "``);` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``int` `largest = second = Integer.MIN_VALUE;`   `    ``// Find the largest element` `    ``for``(i = ``0``; i < arr_size; i++)` `    ``{` `        ``largest = Math.max(largest, arr[i]);` `    ``}`   `    ``// Find the second largest element` `    ``for``(i = ``0``; i < arr_size; i++)` `    ``{` `        ``if` `(arr[i] != largest)` `            ``second = Math.max(second, arr[i]);` `    ``}` `    ``if` `(second == Integer.MIN_VALUE)` `        ``System.out.printf(``"There is no second "` `+` `                          ``"largest element\n"``);` `    ``else` `        ``System.out.printf(``"The second largest "` `+` `                          ``"element is %d\n"``, second);` `}`   `// Driver code` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `{` `    ``int` `arr[] = { ``12``, ``35``, ``1``, ``10``, ``34``, ``1` `};` `    ``int` `n = arr.length;` `    `  `    ``print2largest(arr, n);` `}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Amit Katiyar`

## Python3

 `# Python3 program to find ` `# second largest element ` `# in an array`   `# Function to print ` `# second largest elements` `def` `print2largest(arr, arr_size):`   `    ``# There should be atleast ` `    ``# two elements` `    ``if` `(arr_size < ``2``):` `        ``print``(``" Invalid Input "``);` `        ``return``;`   `    ``largest ``=` `second ``=` `-``2454635434``;`   `    ``# Find the largest element` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``, arr_size):` `        ``largest ``=` `max``(largest, arr[i]);`   `    ``# Find the second largest element` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``, arr_size):` `        ``if` `(arr[i] !``=` `largest):` `            ``second ``=` `max``(second, arr[i]);`   `    ``if` `(second ``=``=` `-``2454635434``):` `        ``print``(``"There is no second "` `+` `              ``"largest element"``);` `    ``else``:` `        ``print``(``"The second largest "` `+` `              ``"element is \n"``, second);`   `# Driver code` `if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:` `  `  `    ``arr ``=` `[``12``, ``35``, ``1``, ` `           ``10``, ``34``, ``1``];` `    ``n ``=` `len``(arr);` `    ``print2largest(arr, n);`   `# This code is contributed by shikhasingrajput`

## C#

 `// C# program to find second largest` `// element in an array` `using` `System;`   `class` `GFG{`   `// Function to print the second largest elements ` `static` `void` `print2largest(``int` `[]arr, ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `    ``// int first;` `    ``int` `i, second;`   `    ``// There should be atleast two elements` `    ``if` `(arr_size < 2)` `    ``{` `        ``Console.Write(``" Invalid Input "``);` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``int` `largest = second = ``int``.MinValue;`   `    ``// Find the largest element` `    ``for``(i = 0; i < arr_size; i++)` `    ``{` `        ``largest = Math.Max(largest, arr[i]);` `    ``}`   `    ``// Find the second largest element` `    ``for``(i = 0; i < arr_size; i++)` `    ``{` `        ``if` `(arr[i] != largest)` `            ``second = Math.Max(second, arr[i]);` `    ``}` `    `  `    ``if` `(second == ``int``.MinValue)` `        ``Console.Write(``"There is no second "` `+` `                      ``"largest element\n"``);` `    ``else` `        ``Console.Write(``"The second largest "` `+` `                      ``"element is {0}\n"``, second);` `}`   `// Driver code` `public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)` `{` `    ``int` `[]arr = { 12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1 };` `    ``int` `n = arr.Length;` `    `  `    ``print2largest(arr, n);` `}` `} `   `// This code is contributed by Amit Katiyar`

Output:

```The second largest element is 34

```

Complexity Analysis:

• Time Complexity: O(n).
Two traversals of the array is needed.
• Auxiliary space: O(1).
As no extra space is required.

Efficient Solution
Approach: Find the second largest element in a single traversal.
Below is the complete algorithm for doing this:

```1) Initialize two variables first and second to INT_MIN as
first = second = INT_MIN
2) Start traversing the array,
a) If the current element in array say arr[i] is greater
than first. Then update first and second as,
second = first
first = arr[i]
b) If the current element is in between first and second,
then update second to store the value of current variable as
second = arr[i]
3) Return the value stored in second.

```

## C

 `// C program to find second largest` `// element in an array`   `#include ` `#include `   `/* Function to print the second largest elements */` `void` `print2largest(``int` `arr[], ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `    ``int` `i, first, second;`   `    ``/* There should be atleast two elements */` `    ``if` `(arr_size < 2) {` `        ``printf``(``" Invalid Input "``);` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``first = second = INT_MIN;` `    ``for` `(i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) {` `        ``/* If current element is greater than first` `           ``then update both first and second */` `        ``if` `(arr[i] > first) {` `            ``second = first;` `            ``first = arr[i];` `        ``}`   `        ``/* If arr[i] is in between first and ` `           ``second then update second  */` `        ``else` `if` `(arr[i] > second && arr[i] != first)` `            ``second = arr[i];` `    ``}` `    ``if` `(second == INT_MIN)` `        ``printf``(``"There is no second largest element\n"``);` `    ``else` `        ``printf``(``"The second largest element is %dn"``, second);` `}`   `/* Driver program to test above function */` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `arr[] = { 12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1 };` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);` `    ``print2largest(arr, n);` `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## C++

 `// C++ program to find second largest` `// element in an array` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `// Function to print the second ` `// largest elements` `void` `print2largest(``int` `arr[], ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `    ``int` `i, first, second;`   `    ``// There should be atleast two elements` `    ``if` `(arr_size < 2)` `    ``{` `        ``cout << ``" Invalid Input "``;` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``first = second = INT_MIN;` `    ``for``(i = 0; i < arr_size; i++)` `    ``{` `        `  `       ``// If current element is greater ` `       ``// than first then update both ` `       ``// first and second ` `       ``if` `(arr[i] > first)` `       ``{` `           ``second = first;` `           ``first = arr[i];` `       ``}` `       `  `       ``// If arr[i] is in between first ` `       ``// and second then update second ` `       ``else` `if` `(arr[i] > second &&` `                ``arr[i] != first)` `       ``{` `           ``second = arr[i];` `       ``}` `    ``}` `    ``if` `(second == INT_MIN)` `        ``cout << ``"There is no second largest"` `                ``"element\n"``;` `    ``else` `        ``cout << ``"The second largest element is "` `             ``<< second;` `}`   `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `arr[] = { 12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1 };` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);` `    `  `    ``print2largest(arr, n);` `    ``return` `0;` `}`   `// This code is contributed by shivanisinghss2110`

## Java

 `// JAVA Code for Find Second largest` `// element in an array` `class` `GFG {`   `    ``/* Function to print the second largest` `    ``elements */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `print2largest(``int` `arr[],` `                                     ``int` `arr_size)` `    ``{` `        ``int` `i, first, second;`   `        ``/* There should be atleast two elements */` `        ``if` `(arr_size < ``2``) {` `            ``System.out.print(``" Invalid Input "``);` `            ``return``;` `        ``}`   `        ``first = second = Integer.MIN_VALUE;` `        ``for` `(i = ``0``; i < arr_size; i++) {` `            ``/* If current element is smaller than ` `            ``first then update both first and second */` `            ``if` `(arr[i] > first) {` `                ``second = first;` `                ``first = arr[i];` `            ``}`   `            ``/* If arr[i] is in between first and ` `               ``second then update second  */` `            ``else` `if` `(arr[i] > second && arr[i] != first)` `                ``second = arr[i];` `        ``}`   `        ``if` `(second == Integer.MIN_VALUE)` `            ``System.out.print(``"There is no second largest"` `                             ``+ ``" element\n"``);` `        ``else` `            ``System.out.print(``"The second largest element"` `                             ``+ ``" is "` `+ second);` `    ``}`   `    ``/* Driver program to test above function */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `    ``{` `        ``int` `arr[] = { ``12``, ``35``, ``1``, ``10``, ``34``, ``1` `};` `        ``int` `n = arr.length;` `        ``print2largest(arr, n);` `    ``}` `}` `// This code is contributed by Arnav Kr. Mandal.`

## Python3

 `# Python program to` `# find second largest ` `# element in an array`     `# Function to print the` `# second largest elements ` `def` `print2largest(arr, arr_size):`   `    ``# There should be atleast` `        ``# two elements ` `    ``if` `(arr_size < ``2``):` `    `  `        ``print``(``" Invalid Input "``)` `        ``return` `    `    `    ``first ``=` `second ``=` `-``2147483648` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(arr_size):` `    `  `        ``# If current element is` `                ``# smaller than first` `        ``# then update both` `                ``# first and second ` `        ``if` `(arr[i] > first):` `        `  `            ``second ``=` `first` `            ``first ``=` `arr[i]` `        `    `        ``# If arr[i] is in` `                ``# between first and ` `        ``# second then update second ` `        ``elif` `(arr[i] > second ``and` `arr[i] !``=` `first):` `            ``second ``=` `arr[i]` `    `  `    ``if` `(second ``=``=` `-``2147483648``):` `        ``print``(``"There is no second largest element"``)` `    ``else``:` `        ``print``(``"The second largest element is"``, second)`     `# Driver program to test` `# above function ` `arr ``=` `[``12``, ``35``, ``1``, ``10``, ``34``, ``1``]` `n ``=` `len``(arr)`   `print2largest(arr, n)`   `# This code is contributed` `# by Anant Agarwal.`

## C#

 `// C# Code for Find Second largest` `// element in an array` `using` `System;`   `class` `GFG {`   `    ``// Function to print the` `    ``// second largest elements` `    ``public` `static` `void` `print2largest(``int``[] arr,` `                                     ``int` `arr_size)` `    ``{` `        ``int` `i, first, second;`   `        ``// There should be atleast two elements` `        ``if` `(arr_size < 2) {` `            ``Console.WriteLine(``" Invalid Input "``);` `            ``return``;` `        ``}`   `        ``first = second = ``int``.MinValue;` `        ``for` `(i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) {` `            ``// If current element is smaller than` `            ``// first then update both first and second` `            ``if` `(arr[i] > first) {` `                ``second = first;` `                ``first = arr[i];` `            ``}`   `            ``// If arr[i] is in between first` `            ``// and second then update second` `            ``else` `if` `(arr[i] > second && arr[i] != first)` `                ``second = arr[i];` `        ``}`   `        ``if` `(second == ``int``.MinValue)` `            ``Console.Write(``"There is no second largest"` `                          ``+ ``" element\n"``);` `        ``else` `            ``Console.Write(``"The second largest element"` `                          ``+ ``" is "` `+ second);` `    ``}`   `    ``// Driver Code` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)` `    ``{` `        ``int``[] arr = { 12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1 };` `        ``int` `n = arr.Length;` `        ``print2largest(arr, n);` `    ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Parashar.`

## PHP

 ` ``\$first``)` `        ``{` `            ``\$second` `= ``\$first``;` `            ``\$first` `= ``\$arr``[``\$i``];` `        ``}`   `        ``// If arr[i] is in ` `        ``// between first and ` `        ``// second then update ` `        ``// second ` `        ``else` `if` `(``\$arr``[``\$i``] > ``\$second` `&&` `                 ``\$arr``[``\$i``] != ``\$first``)` `            ``\$second` `= ``\$arr``[``\$i``];` `    ``}` `    ``if` `(``\$second` `== PHP_INT_MIN)` `        ``echo``(``"There is no second largest element\n"``);` `    ``else` `        ``echo``(``"The second largest element is "` `. ``\$second` `. ``"\n"``);` `}`   `// Driver Code` `\$arr` `= ``array``(12, 35, 1, 10, 34, 1);` `\$n` `= sizeof(``\$arr``);` `print2largest(``\$arr``, ``\$n``);`   `// This code is contributed by Ajit.` `?>`

Output:

```The second largest element is 34

```

Complexity Analysis:

• Time Complexity: O(n).
Only one traversal of the array is needed.
• Auxiliary space: O(1).
As no extra space is required.

Related Article
Smallest and second smallest element in an array
This article is contributed by Harsh Agarwal. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up

Article Tags :

37

Please write to us at contribute@geeksforgeeks.org to report any issue with the above content.