Find most significant bit of a number X in base Y

Given two positive integers X and Y, the task is to find the MSB of X, in the given base Y.

Examples:

Input: X = 55, Y = 3
Output: 2
Explanation:
55 is 2001 in base 3 with first digit as 2.

Input: X = 123, Y = 10
Output: 1
Explanation:
123 is 123 in base 10 with first digit 1.

Approach: Let the task to find 1st digit of X = 1234 in base Y = 10, So to get First digit = 1:



Divide 1234 by 1000
= X / 103
= X / 10Number of Digits in X – 1
= X / 10log(X) / log(10) (which is for base 10)

For any other base, we can replace 10 with Y. Therefore, we can calculate the first digit of a number X in base Y by using the formula:

X / Y(log(X)/log(Y))

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++

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// C++ Program to find the
// first digit of X in base Y
  
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Function to find the first
// digit of X in base Y
void first_digit(int x, int y)
{
    // calculating number of digits of
    // x in base y
    int length = log(x) / log(y) + 1;
  
    // finding first digit of x in base y
    int first_digit = x / pow(y, length - 1);
  
    cout << first_digit;
}
  
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int X = 55, Y = 3;
  
    first_digit(X, Y);
  
    return 0;
}

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Java

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// Java Program to find the
// first digit of X in base Y
import java.util.*;
class GFG{
  
// Function to find the first
// digit of X in base Y
static void first_digit(int x, int y)
{
    // calculating number of digits of
    // x in base y
    int length = (int)(Math.log(x) / 
                       Math.log(y) + 1);
  
    // finding first digit of x in base y
    int first_digit = (int)(x / Math.pow(y, 
                                length - 1));
  
    System.out.println(first_digit);
}
  
// Driver code
public static void main(String args[])
{
    int X = 55, Y = 3;
  
    first_digit(X, Y);
}
}
  
// This code is contributed by AbhiThakur

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Python3

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# Python3 program to find the 
# first digit of X in base Y 
import math
  
# Function to find the first 
# digit of X in base Y 
def first_digit(x, y):
      
    # Calculating number of digits of 
    # x in base y 
    length = int (math.log(x) / 
                  math.log(y) + 1
      
    # Finding first digit of x in base y
    first_digit = x / math.pow(y, length - 1)
  
    print(int(first_digit))
      
# Driver code 
X = 55
Y = 3
  
first_digit(X, Y)
  
# This code is contributed by ishayadav181

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C#

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// C# Program to find the
// first digit of X in base Y
using System;
class GFG{
  
// Function to find the first
// digit of X in base Y
static void first_digit(int x, int y)
{
    // calculating number of digits of
    // x in base y
    int length = (int)(Math.Log(x) / 
                       Math.Log(y) + 1);
  
    // finding first digit of x in base y
    int first_digit = (int)(x / Math.Pow(y, 
                                length - 1));
  
    Console.Write(first_digit);
}
  
// Driver code
public static void Main()
{
    int X = 55, Y = 3;
  
    first_digit(X, Y);
}
}
  
// This code is contributed by Akanksha_Rai

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Output:

2

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