Given an integer **N**, representing the number of nodes present in an undirected graph, with each node valued from **1** to **N, **and a 2D array **Edges[][]**, representing the pair of vertices connected by an edge, the task is to find a set of at most **N/2** nodes such that nodes that are not present in the set, are connected adjacent to any one of the nodes present in the set.

**Examples :**

Input:N = 4, Edges[][2] = {{2, 3}, {1, 3}, {4, 2}, {1, 2}}Output:3 2Explanation:Connections specified in the above graph are as follows:1/ \2 – 3|4

Selecting the set {2, 3} satisfies the required conditions.

Input:N = 5, Edges[][2] = {{2, 1}, {3, 1}, {3, 2}, {4, 1}, {4, 2}, {4, 3}, {5, 1}, {5, 2}, {5, 3}, {5, 4}}Output:1

**Approach: **The given problem can be solved based on the following observations:

- Assume a node to be the
**source**node, then the distance of each vertex from the**source**node will be either odd or even. - Split the nodes into two different sets based on parity, the size of at least one of the sets will not exceed
**N/2**. Since each node of some parity is connected to at least one node of opposite parity, the criteria of choosing**at most N/2**nodes is satisfied.

Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

- Assume any vertex to be the
**source**node. - Initialize two sets, say
**evenParity**and**oddParity,**to store the nodes having**even**and**odd**distances from the source node respectively. - Perform BFS Traversal on the given graph and split the vertices into two different sets depending on the parity of their distances from the
**source**:- If the distance of each connected node from the
**source**node is**odd,**then insert the current node in the set**oddParity**. - If the distance of each connected node from the
**source**node is**even,**then insert the current node in the set**evenParity**.

- If the distance of each connected node from the
- After completing the above steps, print the elements of the set with the minimum size.

## C++

`// C++ program for the above approach` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Function to add an edge` `// to the adjacency list` `void` `addEdge(vector<vector<` `int` `> >& adj,` ` ` `int` `u, ` `int` `v)` `{` ` ` `adj[u].push_back(v);` ` ` `adj[v].push_back(u);` `}` `// Function to perform BFS` `// traversal on a given graph` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > BFS(` ` ` `int` `N, ` `int` `source,` ` ` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > adjlist)` `{` ` ` `// Stores the distance of each` ` ` `// node from the source node` ` ` `int` `dist[N + 1];` ` ` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > vertex_set;` ` ` `// Update the distance of all` ` ` `// vertices from source as -1` ` ` `memset` `(dist, -1, ` `sizeof` `dist);` ` ` `// Assign two seperate vectors` ` ` `// for parity odd and even parities` ` ` `vertex_set.assign(2, vector<` `int` `>(0));` ` ` `// Perform BFS Traversal` ` ` `queue<` `int` `> Q;` ` ` `// Push the source node` ` ` `Q.push(source);` ` ` `dist = 0;` ` ` `// Iterate until queue becomes empty` ` ` `while` `(!Q.empty()) {` ` ` `// Get the front node` ` ` `// present in the queue` ` ` `int` `u = Q.front();` ` ` `Q.pop();` ` ` `// Push the node into vertex_set` ` ` `vertex_set[dist[u] % 2].push_back(u);` ` ` `// Check if the adjacent` ` ` `// vertices are visited` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0;` ` ` `i < (` `int` `)adjlist[u].size(); i++) {` ` ` `// Adjacent node` ` ` `int` `v = adjlist[u][i];` ` ` `// If the node v is unvisited` ` ` `if` `(dist[v] == -1) {` ` ` `// Update the distance` ` ` `dist[v] = dist[u] + 1;` ` ` `// Enqueue the node v` ` ` `Q.push(v);` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Return the possible set of nodes` ` ` `return` `vertex_set;` `}` `// Function to find a set of vertices` `// of at most N/2 nodes such that each` `// unchosen node is connected adjacently` `// to one of the nodes in the set` `void` `findSet(` `int` `N,` ` ` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > adjlist)` `{` ` ` `// Source vertex` ` ` `int` `source = 1;` ` ` `// Store the vertex set` ` ` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > vertex_set` ` ` `= BFS(N, source, adjlist);` ` ` `// Stores the index` ` ` `// with minimum size` ` ` `int` `in = 0;` ` ` `if` `(vertex_set[1].size()` ` ` `< vertex_set[0].size())` ` ` `in = 1;` ` ` `// Print the nodes present in the set` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `node : vertex_set[in]) {` ` ` `cout << node << ` `" "` `;` ` ` `}` `}` `// Driver Code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `int` `N = 5;` ` ` `int` `M = 8;` ` ` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > adjlist;` ` ` `adjlist.assign(N + 1, vector<` `int` `>(0));` ` ` `// Graph Formation` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 2, 5);` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 2, 1);` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 5, 1);` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 4, 5);` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 1, 4);` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 2, 4);` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 3, 4);` ` ` `addEdge(adjlist, 3, 5);` ` ` `// Function Call to print the` ` ` `// set of at most N / 2 nodes` ` ` `findSet(N, adjlist);` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

## Python3

`# Python3 program for the above approach` `from` `collections ` `import` `deque` `# Function to add an edge` `# to the adjacency list` `def` `addEdge(adj, u, v):` ` ` `adj[u].append(v)` ` ` `adj[v].append(u)` ` ` `return` `adj` `# Function to perform BFS` `# traversal on a given graph` `def` `BFS(N, source, adjlist):` ` ` ` ` `# Stores the distance of each` ` ` `# node from the source node` ` ` `dist ` `=` `[` `-` `1` `]` `*` `(N ` `+` `1` `)` ` ` `vertex_set ` `=` `[[] ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `2` `)]` ` ` `# Perform BFS Traversal` ` ` `Q ` `=` `deque()` ` ` `# Push the source node` ` ` `Q.append(source)` ` ` `dist ` `=` `0` ` ` `# Iterate until queue becomes empty` ` ` `while` `len` `(Q) > ` `0` `:` ` ` `# Get the front node` ` ` `# present in the queue` ` ` `u ` `=` `Q.popleft()` ` ` `# Push the node into vertex_set` ` ` `vertex_set[dist[u] ` `%` `2` `].append(u)` ` ` `# Check if the adjacent` ` ` `# vertices are visited` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `len` `(adjlist[u])):` ` ` ` ` `# Adjacent node` ` ` `v ` `=` `adjlist[u][i]` ` ` `# If the node v is unvisited` ` ` `if` `(dist[v] ` `=` `=` `-` `1` `):` ` ` `# Update the distance` ` ` `dist[v] ` `=` `dist[u] ` `+` `1` ` ` `# Enqueue the node v` ` ` `Q.append(v)` ` ` `# Return the possible set of nodes` ` ` `return` `vertex_set` `# Function to find a set of vertices` `# of at most N/2 nodes such that each` `# unchosen node is connected adjacently` `# to one of the nodes in the set` `def` `findSet(N, adjlist):` ` ` ` ` `# Source vertex` ` ` `source ` `=` `1` ` ` `# Store the vertex set` ` ` `vertex_set ` `=` `BFS(N, source, adjlist)` ` ` `# Stores the index` ` ` `# with minimum size` ` ` `inn ` `=` `0` ` ` `if` `(` `len` `(vertex_set[` `1` `]) < ` `len` `(vertex_set[` `0` `])):` ` ` `inn ` `=` `1` ` ` `# Print the nodes present in the set` ` ` `for` `node ` `in` `vertex_set[inn]:` ` ` `print` `(node, end` `=` `" "` `)` `# Driver Code` `if` `__name__ ` `=` `=` `'__main__'` `:` ` ` `N ` `=` `5` ` ` `M ` `=` `8` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `[[] ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(N` `+` `1` `)]` ` ` `# Graph Formation` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `2` `, ` `5` `)` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `2` `, ` `1` `)` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `5` `, ` `1` `)` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `4` `, ` `5` `)` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `1` `, ` `4` `)` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `2` `, ` `4` `)` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `3` `, ` `4` `)` ` ` `adjlist ` `=` `addEdge(adjlist, ` `3` `, ` `5` `)` ` ` `# Function Call to print the` ` ` `# set of at most N / 2 nodes` ` ` `findSet(N, adjlist)` `# This code is contributed by mohit kumar 29.` |

**Output:**

1 3

**Time Complexity:** O(N + M)**Auxiliary Space:** O(N + M)