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Final vs Static vs Abstract Non-Access Modifier

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  • Last Updated : 04 Mar, 2022

Modifiers are specific keywords present in Java using that we can make changes to the characteristics of a variable, method, or class and limit its scope. Java programming language has a rich set of Modifiers. Modifiers in Java are divided into two types

  1. Access Modifiers
  2. Non-Access modifiers

Non-access modifiers provide information about the characteristics of a class, method, or variable to the JVM. Seven types of Non-Access modifiers are present in Java. They are

  • static
  • final
  • abstract
  • synchronized
  • volatile
  • transient
  • native

Read more about Non-Access Modifiers in Java. In this article, we are going to discuss the differences among Final, Static, and Abstract Non-Access Modifiers. 

Final Non-Access Modifier

The final non-access modifier is applicable to classes, methods, and variables. If we declare a parent class method as final then we can’t override that method in the child class because its implementation is final and if a class is declared as final we can’t extend the functionality of that class i.e we can’t create a child class for that class i.e inheritance is not possible for final classes. Every method present inside the final class is always final y default but every variable present inside the final class need not be final. The main advantage of the final keyword is we can achieve security and we can provide a unique implementation. But the main disadvantage of the final keyword is we are missing key benefits of OOPs like Inheritance(Because of the final class), Polymorphism(Because of the final method)  hence if there are no specific requirements then it is not recommended to use the final keyword.

Example 1:

Java




// Java Program to illustrate Final keyword
// Where No final keyword Is Used
 
// Importing required classes
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
// Class 1
// Super-class
class P {
 
    // Method 1
    // To declare first name
    public void firstName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Mayank");
    }
 
    // Method 2
    // To declare last name
    public void surName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Trivedi");
    }
}
 
// Class 2
// Sub-class
// Extending above class
class C extends P {
 
    // Method 1
    // Trying to override the last name
    public void surName()
    {
        // Display surname
        System.out.println("Sharma");
    }
 
    // Method 2
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Display message
        System.out.println("GFG");
    }
}

Output:

GFG

Example 2:

Java




// Java Program to illustrate Final keyword
// When final keyword Is Used
 
// Importing required classes
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
// Class 1
// Super-class
class P {
 
    // Method 1
    // To declare first name
    public void firstName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Mayank");
    }
       
      // Method 2
    // To declare last name
    public final void surName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Trivedi");
    }
}
 
// Class 2
// Sub-class
// Extending above class
class C extends P {
 
    // Method 1
    // Trying to override the last name
    public void surName()
    {
        // Display surname
        System.out.println("Sharma");
    }
     
      // Method 2
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Display message
        System.out.println("GFG");
    }
}

Output:

Output

Static Non-Access Modifier

The static non-access modifier is applicable for methods and variables but not for classes. We can declare a top-level class with a static modifier but we can declare the inner class as static (such types of inner classes are known as static nested classes). In the case of instance variable for every object, a separate copy will be created but in the case of static variable, a single copy will be created at class level and shared by every object of that class.

Example:

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Static Access Modifier
 
// Importing required classes
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
// Main class
class GFG {
 
    // Creating a static variable and
    // initializing a custom value
    static int x = 10;
 
    // Creating a instance variable and
    // initializing a custom value
    int y = 20;
 
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Creating an object of class inside main() method
        GFG t1 = new GFG();
 
        // Accessing and re-initializing the
        // static and instance variable
        // using t1 reference
        t1.x = 888;
        t1.y = 99;
 
        // Creating an object of class inside main() method
        // again
        GFG t2 = new GFG();
 
        // Accessing the static and instance variable using
        // t2 reference as we know that for each object
        // there is separate copy of instance variable
        // created. While same copy of static variable will
        // be shared between the objects
 
        // Displaying the value of static and instance
        // variable using t2 object reference
        System.out.println(
            "Value of Static variable x = " + t2.x + "\n"
            + "Value of Instance variable y = " + t2.y);
    }
}

Output:

Output

Abstract Non-Access Modifier

The abstract non-access modifier is applicable only for classes and methods but not for variables. If we declare any method as abstract then that method must have its implementation in the child class of the respective class because abstract methods never talk about implementation. If any modifier talks about implementation then it forms an illegal combination with an abstract modifier. In a similar way if for any java class if we are not allowed to create an object (because of partial implementation) then such type of class we have to declare with abstract modifier.

Example:

Java




// Java program to illustrate Abstract Access Modifier
  
// Importing the required packages
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
  
// Class 1
// Helper abstract class
abstract class Vehicle {
  
    // Declaring an abstract method getNumberOfWheel
    abstract public int getNumberOfWheel();
}
  
// Class 2
// Helper class extending above abstract class
class Bus extends Vehicle {
  
    // Giving the implementation
    // to the  parent abstract method
    public int getNumberOfWheel() { return 7; }
}
  
// Class 3
// Helper class extending above abstract class
class Auto extends Vehicle {
  
    // Giving the implementation
    // to the  parent abstract method
    public int getNumberOfWheel() { return 3; }
}
  
// Class 4
// Main class
public class GFG {
  
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
  
        // Creating Bus object
        Bus b = new Bus();
  
        // Creating Auto object
        Auto a = new Auto();
  
        // Now getting and displaying
        // the number of wheels
        // for Bus by calling the
        // getNumberOfWheel method
        System.out.println("Number of wheels in bus is"
                           + " " + b.getNumberOfWheel());
  
        // Now getting and displaying
        // the number of wheels
        // for Auto by calling the
        // getNumberOfWheel method
        System.out.println("Number of wheels in Auto is"
                           + " " + a.getNumberOfWheel());
    }
}

Output:

Output

Difference Table 

     Final Non-Access Modifier                          Static Non-Access ModifierAbstract Non-Access Modifier
This modifier is applicable to both outer and inner classes.This modifier is not applicable to outer classes.This modifier is applicable to both outer and inner classes.
This modifier is not  applicable to interfaces This modifier is not applicable to interfaces. This modifier is applicable to interfaces. 
This modifier is the only modifier that is applicable for local variables. This modifier is not applicable for local variables. This modifier is not applicable for local variables. 
Final method can’t be inherited.Static methods can only access the static members of the class and can only be called by other static methods.Abstract method can be inherited.

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