Ferro-electric Random Access Memory (FRAM) is a type of Random Access Memory, which uses a ferro-electric capacitor to achieve it’s non-volatility (content is not lost when power is turned off).The di-electric constant of a ferroelectric material usually has a high value. The most widely used ferroelectric material is PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate). Due to the layer being ferroelectric, it may seem that it contains iron, but it actually does not contain iron.
The basic structure of FRAM is similar to that of DRAM (Dynamic RAM), the only difference being that the di-electric layer is replaced by a ferroelectric layer. To perform read, write and store operations, it consists of a bit-line, a word-line, transistors and a ferroelectric layer.
The capacitance of a ferroelectric material is variable. It behaves in a normal linear way, if switch is OFF when electric field is applied. If the switch is ON when an electric field is applied to the ferroelectric crystal layer, the central atom begins to move in the direction of field. At some point in its path, the atom exceeds an energy threshold causing a charge to spike. This charge spike is detected by the internal circuits and they set the memory. Now, if we remove the electric field, the state of memory is preserved as the central atom stays in its position. Due to this preservation of memory, we say that FRAM is non-volatile.
Random Access Memory (e.g.,. Dynamic RAM, Static RAM) has the advantage that it has a fast read/write access but it is volatile in nature, which means that we need a constant power supply to maintain the data in memory. On the other hand, Read Only Memory (ex. EEPROM, FLASH) has the advantage of being non-volatile but at the same time, it is very slow as compared to RAM. FRAM combines the best of the two types of memories, which means that it is non-volatile and also has a fast read/write access.
The key features of FRAM are:
- Consumes less power.
- Can tolerate radiation.
- Is more secure than other memory types.
- Has high endurance for read/write cycles.
- Is over-writable like SRAM.
- Less expensive than magnetic memories.
The overall performance of a FRAM can be increased by:
- Reducing it’s size.
- Improving storage density.
- Improving manufacturing process, so that the ferroelectric layer does not degrade easily.
Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important CS Theory concepts for SDE interviews with the CS Theory Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.
- Difference between Uniform Memory Access (UMA) and Non-uniform Memory Access (NUMA)
- Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM)
- Difference between Random Access Memory (RAM) and Content Addressable Memory (CAM)
- Different Types of RAM (Random Access Memory )
- Difference between Random Access Memory (RAM) and Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
- Magnetic Random Access Memory (M-RAM)
- PRAM or Parallel Random Access Machines
- Direct memory access with DMA controller 8257/8237
- Difference between Simultaneous and Hierarchical Access Memory Organisations
- Memory Access Methods
- Difference between Volatile Memory and Non-Volatile Memory
- Introduction to memory and memory units
- Difference between Byte Addressable Memory and Word Addressable Memory
- Difference between Virtual memory and Cache memory
- 8085 program to access and exchange the content of Flag register with register B
- Access matrix in Operating System
- Implementation of Access Matrix in Distributed OS
- Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time in Disk Scheduling
- Difference between Transfer Time and Disk Access Time in Disk Scheduling
- Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Access Time in Disk Scheduling
If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to firstname.lastname@example.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.