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Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

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Magnetic induction is the era of an electromotive pressure around an electrical conductor in a converting magnetic field. Induction changed observed through Michael Faraday in 1831, and it changed into officially described as Faraday’s regulation of induction through James Clerk Maxwell. And Lenz’s regulation describes the route of the precipitated field.

Electromagnetic induction is utilized by electric additives like inductors and transformers, in addition to gadgets like electric-powered vehicles and generators.

Faraday’s Laws of Induction


According to electromagnetic induction, a change in the magnetic field around an electric circuit produces a current in the circuit. The strength of the magnetic field or the relative velocity of the magnetic field and the electric circuit are the factors who affect the amount of current induced in the wire.

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, also known as the law of electromagnetism, is responsible for the functioning of electric generators, motors, transformers, and inductors.

First Experiment


Faraday and Henry conducted a number of experiments for a better understanding of electromagnetic induction.

A bar magnet, a coil attached to a circuit containing wire connected to a galvanometer, and a galvanometer are used in the experiment. When the magnet is brought close to the coil with its north pole directed towards it, the galvanometer shows a deflection. The deflection of the coil signifies that current is flowing through it. The galvanometer deflection lasts as long as the magnet moves, and it vanishes as soon as the magnet stops moving. When the magnet is pulled away from the galvanometer, the deflection is recorded, but in the other direction, showing a reversal in the current direction.

When the bar magnet was pulled away from the coil with its the South Pole facing the coil, the effects were the polar opposite.

The deflection produced in the galvanometer when the magnet is quickly moved away from or towards the coil is large, offering a large volume of current flow. Similar results are achieved when the magnet is held stationary while the circuit is moved closer or further away from it. As a result, the coil generates an electric current due to the relative motion of the coil and the magnet.

Second Experiment


In the second experiment, Faraday and Henry replaced the bar magnet with another electric coil connected to a battery, as shown in the diagram below. A magnetic field is recognized to be associated with moving electric charges. As a result of the continuous flow of current through the second coil, a homogeneous magnetic field will build around it. A deflection is created in the galvanometer as the second coil is moved towards the first coil, showing the flow of electric current through the first coil. The deflection stops when the second coil comes to rest, and when the second coil is moved farther away from the first coil, the deflection direction is restored. Similar results were seen when the second coil was left at rest while the first coil was pulled towards it. Current is induced as a result of the relative motion between the coils.

Third Experiment

As illustrated in the first two tests, an electric current is induced whenever there is a relative motion between the magnet and the coil, or between the two coils. Faraday, on the other hand, established in his third experiment that relative motion is not required for current to flow through the coil. For his third experiment, he used two coils, one connected to a galvanometer and the other to a battery and a tapping key.


The circuit is completed, current flows through the coil, and a brief deflection in the galvanometer on the first coil is noticed when the two coils are brought close together and the tapping key on the second coil is pressed. There is a temporary deflection in the opposite direction when the key is released. The deflection in the galvanometer increases when an iron rod is placed along the axis of the coils. The involvement of an iron rod increases the electromagnet’s strength. As a result, the magnitude of current flowing through the coil increases, as seen by the increased deflection of the galvanometer.

Conclusion from the Experiments

The three tests led Faraday to the conclusion that the total magnetic flux associated with the coil varies whenever the coil and the magnetic field move relative to each other. The oscillating magnetic field would generate the voltage across the coil. An electromotive force is generated across the coil by the fluctuation of magnetic flux over time.

Faraday’s First Law

Faraday’s first law of electromagnetic induction states that once a conductor is placed in a fluctuating magnetic field, an electromotive stress produced during the conductor. A modern-day is delivered approximately even as this circuit is closed, and this modern-day is referred to as delivered approximately modern-day.

The following are some methods for changing the magnetic field:

  1. The coil is circled when it comes to the magnet.
  2. By adjusting the coil’s role when it comes to the magnetic field.
  3. By adjusting the coil’s vicinity inside the magnetic field.
  4. By transferring the magnet in the front of or at the back of the coil.

Faraday’s Second Law

According to Faraday’s second law, the quantity of emf generated in an electric coil equals the rate of change of electric flux associated to the coil. The flux associated with the coil is determined by the product of the number of turns in the coil and the flux associated with it.

The coil’s emf is proportional to the charge of alternate magnetic flux touring via it. Faraday’s regulation may be mathematically represented as:

ε = –NdΦ/dt


  • ε is EMF generated,
  • Φ is Magnetic flux associated with the coil and
  • N is Number of turns in the coil.

Applications of Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

  1. This regulation governs the operation of devices like transformers and electric motors.
  2. Faraday’s law of induction may help in understanding how an induction cooker operates.
  3. The speed of liquid flow can be measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter.

Lenz’s Law

Heinrich Lenz proposed the Lenz regulation in 1834. Faraday’s regulation of electromagnetic induction helped us discern how plenty of electromotive pressure becomes generated throughout the circuit, and Lenz’s regulation helped us discern out which manner the electrical cutting-edge become flowing. According to Lenz’s regulation, the course of bringing about cutting-edge withinside the coil opposes the alternative that creates the brought about emf. To position it any other manner, cutting-edge will waft withinside the polar contrary course of the flux that creates it.


  • First Experiment – When the current in the coil flows in the circuit, the magnetic field lines form in the first experiment. As the current running through the coil increases, the magnetic flux also increases. The flow of induced current will be in the opposite direction as the magnetic flux increases.
  • Second Experiment – In the second experiment, he concluded that after the modern-wearing coil is wound on an iron rod with its left ceases behaving as N-pole and is moved toward the coil S, a triggered modern might be produced.
  • Third Experiment – In the third experiment, the coil related to it diminishes as its miles drew closer to the magnetic flux, which means that the coil’s vicinity withinside the magnetic subject shrinks as well.

Lenz’s regulation suggests that the coil’s movement is antagonistic whilst the caused contemporary is given withinside the equal course because of the coil’s movement. By exerting pressure, the loop’s magnet generates a contemporary. To make up for the change, the contemporary has to observe the pressure at the magnet.

Lenz Law Formula

When a change in magnetic flux generates an electromagnetic field, the polarity of the induced electromagnetic field produces an induced current whose magnetic field opposes the initial changing magnetic field that created it, according to Lenz’s law.

ε = –NdΦB/dt


  • ϵ = induced EMF
  • B =  change in magnetic flux
  • N = number of turns in the coil

Sample Questions

Question 1: State Faraday’s first law.


When a conductor is put in a fluctuating magnetic field, Faraday’s first law states that an emf, or electromotive force, is generated across the conductor.

Question 2: What is Lenz’s Law of electromagnetic induction?


The direction of induced current in the coil is such that it opposes the change that causes the induced emf, according to Lenz’s law.

Question 3: What are eddy currents, and how may Lenz law be used to understand them?


The Lenz law governs Eddy’s current, which is a tiny electric current. In conductors, it generates a massive looping current, despite the fact that it is used to refer to small currents. When a conductor moves through a magnetic field, electric currents are produced, which is in accordance with Lenz’s law and counteracts the effect of motion, which causes magnetic damping. Magnetic braking devices, such as roller coasters, frequently use this type of motion in which the induced field acts against the motion through which it is formed.

Question 4: What is Faraday’s second law?


According to Faraday’s second law, the quantity of emf formed in an electric coil equals the rate of change of electric flux coupled to the coil. The flux associated with the coil is determined by the product of the number of turns in the coil and the flux associated with it.

The coil’s emf is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux travelling through it. Faraday’s law can be mathematically represented as:


Question 5: What is magnetic flux?


The amount of magnetic field travelling through a given area is known as magnetic flux. It’s also known as the number of magnetic field lines that travel across a given location. Tesla is the SI unit for it. The dot product of the magnetic field and the area vector is used to calculate it.


B’ is the magnetic field.
A’ is the area vector.

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Last Updated : 31 May, 2022
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