Factory method to create immutable Map in Java 9

In Java 9 there are some features are added in Java language and factory method for immutable map is one of them.
Characteristics of immutable map:

  • As the name suggest these map are immutable.
  • If any attempt made to add, delete and update elements in the map we will have UnsupportedOperationException.
  • Immutable map do not allow null element either.
  • If any attempt made to create a immutable map with null element, we will have NullPointerException. If any attempt made to add null element in map, we will have UnsupportedOperationException.

Creating immutable map in Java 8

To create immutable map in java 8, we use java.util.unmodifiableMap(Map map) method. unmodifiableMap(Map map): This method returns an unmodifiable view of the specified map. This method allows modules to provide users with “read-only” access to internal maps.

Syntax: public static  Map unmodifiableMap(Map map)
Returns: an unmodifiable view of the specified map.
Exception: NA

Java code for immutable empty and no-empty map:

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// Java code illustrating immutable map in java 8
import java.util.*;
class ImmutableListDemo
{
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        // empty map
        Map<Integer, String> empty = new HashMap();
        Map immutable1 = Collections.unmodifiableMap(empty);
           
        // non-empty map
        Map<Integer, String> non_empty = new HashMap();
        non_empty.put(1, "ide");
           
        Map immutable2 = Collections.unmodifiableMap(non_empty);
           
        // adding key-value pair in these immutable map
        immutable1.put(1,"gfg");
        immutable2.put(2,"quiz");
              
    }
}

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Above code will generate exception, because we are trying to add key-value pair in immutable Map.

Runtime Error : Exception in thread "main" 
java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException
at java.util.Collections$UnmodifiableMap.put(Collections.java:1457)
at ImmutableListDemo.main(File.java:17)

Creating immutable Map in java 9

To create immutable map in java 9, we use of() and ofEntries() method.
Java code to create immutable map in java 9:

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// Java code illustrating of() method
import java.util.*;
class ImmutableListDemo
{
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        // empty immutable map
        Map<Integer, String> immutable1 = Map.of();
           
        // non-empty immutable map
        Map<Integer, String> immutable2 = Map.of(1, "ide",2, "quiz");
          
        // adding key-value pair in these immutable map
        immutable1.put(1,"gfg");
        immutable2.put(3,"contribute");
              
    }
}

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After running above code, we will have UnsupportedOperationException.
Java code to create immutable map using Map.ofEntries() method in Java 9:

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// Java code illustrating ofEntries method
import java.util.*;
import java.util.Map.Entry;
class ImmutableListDemo
{
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        // empty immutable map
        Map<Integer, String> immutable = Map.ofEntries();
           
        // non-empty immutable map
        Map.Entry<Integer, String> entry1 = Map.entry(1, "gfg");
        Map.Entry<Integer, String> entry2 = Map.entry(2, "contribute");
           
        Map<Integer, String> immubatleMap = Map.ofEntries(entry1,
                         entry2);     
    }
}

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So of() and ofEntries() are method used to create immutable map in java 9.

This article is contributed by Abhishek Verma. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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