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Factors Affecting the Climate of India

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  • Last Updated : 27 Apr, 2022
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Climate can be called the steady weather condition of an area. There are various factors that influence India’s climate, they are explained below:

  • Latitude
  • Altitude
  • Pressure and winds
    • Upper air circulation
    • Pressure and surface winds
    • Tropical cyclones and western cyclonic disturbances

Latitude

India’s climate relies upon its latitudinal degree. Tropic of Cancer isolates the country into two half. One is the tropical climate which lies south of the Tropic of cancer and another is the Subtropical climate which lies North of the Tropic of cancer. The Tropic of Cancer goes through the centre of the country from the Rann of Kachchh in the west to Mizoram in the east.

For example, As the earth is round, daylight doesn’t reach wherever similarly. The temperature diminishes as we move from the equator to the posts.

Altitude

The Himalayas in the North have an average height of around 6000 m Preventing the cold twists from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. In light of these mountains, the subcontinent encounters nearly gentle winters. India likewise has a tremendous waterfront region where the greatest height is around 30 meters.

For example, Areas at a higher elevation have colder temperatures. Temperature as a rule diminishes by 1°C for every 100 meters in elevation.

Pressure and Winds

The climate and related atmospheric conditions in India are represented by the accompanying environmental circumstances:

Upper-Air Circulation

The upper air circulation of the district is overwhelmed by a westerly flow which is represented by a Jet stream. The place of the jet stream in summer is North of the Himalayas and in winter the jet stream will be South of the Himalayas. 

For example, Jet streams are quick streaming, restricted, wandering air currents in the atmosphere. 

Pressure And Surface Winds 

There is a high-pressure zone north of the Himalayas in winters. Cold dry breezes blow from this district to the low-pressure regions over the seas to the south. India lies in the locale of Northeasterly breezes. In summer, a low-pressure region creates over inside Asia as well as finished northwestern India. This causes a total inversion of the course of winds during summer. 

Tropical Cyclones And Western Cyclonic Disturbances 

Tropical cyclones start over the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. These unsettling influences are important for the easterly flow and hit the coastal regions of the nation. The greater part of these cyclones is exceptionally damaging because of high wind speed and heavy rains going with them. Occur during monsoon and in October and November. The weather peculiarities of the cold weather months got by the westerly stream from Mediterranean area is influenced by western cyclic disturbances. They generally impact the climate of the north and north-western districts.

Sample Questions

Question 1: How does the altitude of the Himalayas affect India’s climate? 

Answer:  

The altitude of Himalayas affect Indian climate in following ways:

  • Himalayas in the North have a average height of around 6000 m Prevents the cold twists from Central Asia from entering the sub continent. 
  • India  likewise has a tremendous waterfront region where the greatest height is around 30 meters in this way altitude of Himalayas are influencing India’s climate. 

Question 2: What are western cyclonic disturbances and how does it influence the Indian climate? 

Answer:

 The weather peculiarities of the cold weather months got by westerly stream from Mediterranean area is influenced by western cyclic disturbances. They generally impact the climate of the north and north-western  districts.

Due to the Western cyclonic disturbances the  weather of the North and the North – western part of the country is influenced.  

Question 3: What is the Coriolis force and explain how it influences the Indian climate? 

Answer:

 Coriolis force is answerable for avoiding twists towards the squarely in the northern half of the globe and towards the left in the southern side of the equator.  A clear power brought about by the earth’s rotation and it is also called as  ‘Ferrell’s Law’.

India lies in the locale of North easterly breezes. on towards the tropical low strain regions and these breezes conveys almost no dampness. A high pressure zone north of Himalayas occurs during winters. Cold dry breezes blow from this district to the low pressure regions over the seas to the south. 

Question 5: What is a tropical cyclone and how does it influence the Indian climate? 

Answer:

Tropical cyclones start over the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. These unsettling influences are important for the easterly flow and hit the coastal regions of the nation . The greater part of these cyclones are exceptionally damaging because of high wind speed and heavy rains going with them. Occur during monsoon and in October and November.

Question 6: Define jet stream and explain how air circulation influences the Indian climate? 

Answer:

  • Jet stream – These are a limited belt of high height  westerly breezes in the lower atmosphere. Their speed shifts from around 110 km/h in summer to around 184 km/h in winter. Various separate jet streams have been distinguished.
  • The place of the jet stream in summer is North to the Himalayas and in winter the jet stream will be South to the Himalayas.  
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