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# Explain different types of data in statistics

Data is defined as a systematic record corresponding to a specific quantity. Basically, data can be summarised as a set of facts and figures which can be used to serve a specific usage or purpose. For instance, data can be used as a survey or an analysis. Data in a systematic and organized form is referred to as information. In addition to this, the source of data primary or secondary is also an essential factor.

### Types of Data In Statistics:

In statistics, there are four main types of data: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. These types of data are used to describe the nature of the data being collected or analyzed, and they help determine the appropriate statistical tests to use. In this essay, we will explore each type of data in detail, providing examples along the way.

Nominal Data:
Nominal data is a type of data that consists of categories or names that cannot be ordered or ranked. Nominal data is often used to categorize observations into groups, and the groups are not comparable. In other words, nominal data has no inherent order or ranking. Examples of nominal data include gender (male/female), race (White/Black/Asian), religion (Christianity/Islam/Judaism), and blood type (A/B/AB/O).

Nominal data can be represented using frequency tables and bar charts, which display the number or proportion of observations in each category. For example, a frequency table for gender might show the number of males and females in a sample of people. A bar chart might display the proportions of males and females in the sample.

Nominal data is analyzed using non-parametric tests, which do not make any assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data. Common non-parametric tests for nominal data include chi-squared tests and Fisher’s exact tests. These tests are used to compare the frequency or proportion of observations in different categories.

Ordinal Data:
Ordinal data is a type of data that consists of categories that can be ordered or ranked. However, the distance between categories is not necessarily equal. Ordinal data is often used to measure subjective attributes or opinions, where there is a natural order to the responses. Examples of ordinal data include education level (elementary/middle/high school/college), job position (manager/supervisor/employee), and Likert scales (strongly agree/agree/disagree/strongly disagree).

Ordinal data can be represented using frequency tables, bar charts, or line charts. These displays show the order or ranking of the categories, but they do not imply that the distances between categories are equal.

Ordinal data is analyzed using non-parametric tests, which make no assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data. Common non-parametric tests for ordinal data include the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney U test. These tests are used to compare the median or rank of observations in different categories.

Interval Data:
Interval data is a type of data that consists of numerical values where the distance between each value is equal. However, there is no true zero point. Interval data is often used to measure attributes such as temperature, dates, and time. Examples of interval data include temperature (Celsius/Fahrenheit), dates (days/months/years), and time (hours/minutes/seconds).

Interval data can be represented using histograms, boxplots, or line charts. These displays show the range of the data and the frequency or proportion of observations at each value.

Interval data is analyzed using parametric tests, which assume that the underlying distribution of the data is normal or approximately normal. Common parametric tests for interval data include the t-test, ANOVA, and regression analysis. These tests are used to compare the means or variances of observations in different groups or to examine the relationship between variables.

Ratio Data:
Ratio data is a type of data that has a true zero point and an equal distance between each value. Ratio data is considered the most informative type of data because it can be used to make meaningful comparisons and calculations. In addition, ratio data can be used to perform all types of statistical analyses.

Examples of ratio data include height (inches/centimeters), weight (pounds/kilograms), income (dollars), and distance (miles/kilometers). For instance, if someone’s height is 60 inches, it means that they are 5 feet tall, and if their height is 72 inches, it means that they are 6 feet tall. Moreover, if someone’s weight is 150 pounds, it means that they weigh 68 kilograms.

Ratio data can be represented using histograms, boxplots, or line charts. These displays show the range of the data and the frequency or proportion of observations at each value. In addition, ratio data can be used to calculate various measures of central tendency, such as the mean, median, and mode, and measures of variability, such as range, variance, and standard deviation.

Ratio data is analyzed using parametric tests, which assume that the underlying distribution of the data is normal or approximately normal. Common parametric tests for ratio data include the t-test, ANOVA, and regression analysis. These tests are used to compare the means or variances of observations in different groups or to examine the relationship between variables.

Question 1. Difference between Quantitative data and Qualitative data?

Solution:

Question 2. Difference between Discrete and Continuous Data?

Solution:

Question 3. Give any two examples of data collection.

Solution:

• Increase in population of our country in the last two decades.
• Number of rupees in the bag

Question 4. Illustrate:

A. Describe how was your overall experience using the product?

B. Describe how was your overall experience using the product?

• Good
• Poor

What type of data is illustrated by these points.

Solution:

A reflects nominal data whereas B reflects ordinal data.