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Expandable RecyclerView in Android with Kotlin

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  • Last Updated : 14 Feb, 2022

In this article, we will get to know how to implement the expandable RecycleView. In General, we will show the list of items in the listview but in some situations like if you want to show the sub-list items, then we have to use an expandable list. See the below image for a better understanding.

Expandable RecyclerView in Android with

expandable recycle view

Step by Step Implementation

1. If you observe the above image, we have two types of list items – one is parent and child.  But you can pass a list of similar objects to the recycler view. So, we have to create a common object/model  for both(parent and child)

2. Creating Common Model Class

Kotlin




data class ParentData(
    val parentTitle:String?=null,
    var type:Int = Constants.PARENT,
    var subList : MutableList<ChildData> = ArrayList(),
    var isExpanded:Boolean = false
)

This is the model we use for parent and child. In the data class type – is by default parent, isExpanded – is by default false and empty sublist. Here we are using Constants from file like below.

Kotlin




object Constants {
    const val PARENT = 0
    const val CHILD = 1
}

3. Creating Child data class

In this step, we have to create one more data class for child items like below.

Kotlin




data class ChildData(val childTitle:String)

4. Setting up some data to show in the list

Now, we will add some data to the list, which is passed to the adapter like below

Kotlin




val listData : MutableList<ParentData> = ArrayList()

Here we are taking listData, which is used to store the ParentData objects. Now we create sample data of parent and child objects like below.

Kotlin




val parentData: Array<String> = arrayOf("Andhra Pradesh", "Telangana", "Karnataka", "TamilNadu")
val childDataData1: MutableList<ChildData> = mutableListOf(ChildData("Anathapur"),ChildData("Chittoor"),ChildData("Nellore"),ChildData("Guntur"))
val childDataData2: MutableList<ChildData> = mutableListOf(ChildData("Rajanna Sircilla"), ChildData("Karimnagar"), ChildData("Siddipet"))
val childDataData3: MutableList<ChildData> = mutableListOf(ChildData("Chennai"), ChildData("Erode"))

Now is the time to convert this data into a ParentData object because we will be adding this to the ListData.

Kotlin




val parentObj1 = ParentData(parentTitle = parentData[0], subList = childDataData1)
val parentObj2 = ParentData(parentTitle = parentData[1], subList = childDataData2)
val parentObj3 = ParentData(parentTitle = parentData[2])
val parentObj4 = ParentData(parentTitle = parentData[1], subList = childDataData3)

In the ParentData model by default- the type is the parent and expandable is false. Now we are adding title and sublist. Finally, we need to add all these objects to listData like below

Kotlin




listData.add(parentObj1)
listData.add(parentObj2)
listData.add(parentObj3)
listData.add(parentObj4)

5. Creating the Adapter for recycle view 

We just added some dummy data, now we have to show this data into the recycler view, for that we need one adapter, which is used to show our data as per our requirement.

Kotlin




class RecycleAdapter(var mContext: Context, val list: MutableList<ParentData>) : RecyclerView.Adapter<RecyclerView.ViewHolder>() {
  
    override fun onCreateViewHolder(parent: ViewGroup, viewType: Int): RecyclerView.ViewHolder {
  
        return if(viewType== Constants.PARENT){
            val rowView: View = LayoutInflater.from(parent.context).inflate(R.layout.parent_row, parent,false)
           GroupViewHolder(rowView)
        } else {
            val rowView: View = LayoutInflater.from(parent.context).inflate(R.layout.child_row, parent,false)
           ChildViewHolder(rowView)
        }
    }
  
    override fun getItemCount(): Int = list.size
  
    override fun onBindViewHolder(holder: RecyclerView.ViewHolder, position: Int) {
  
        val dataList = list[position]
        if (dataList.type == Constants.PARENT) {
            holder as GroupViewHolder
            holder.apply {
                parentTV?.text = dataList.parentTitle
                downIV?.setOnClickListener {
                    expandOrCollapseParentItem(dataList,position)
                }
            }
        } else {
            holder as ChildViewHolder
  
            holder.apply {
                val singleService = dataList.subList.first()
                childTV?.text =singleService.childTitle
            }
        }
    }
    private fun expandOrCollapseParentItem(singleBoarding: ParentData,position: Int) {
  
        if (singleBoarding.isExpanded) {
            collapseParentRow(position)
        } else {
            expandParentRow(position)
        }
    }
  
    private fun expandParentRow(position: Int){
        val currentBoardingRow = list[position]
        val services = currentBoardingRow.subList
        currentBoardingRow.isExpanded = true
        var nextPosition = position
        if(currentBoardingRow.type==Constants.PARENT){
  
            services.forEach { service ->
                val parentModel =  ParentData()
                parentModel.type = Constants.CHILD
                val subList : ArrayList<ChildData> = ArrayList()
                subList.add(service)
                parentModel.subList=subList
                list.add(++nextPosition,parentModel)
            }
            notifyDataSetChanged()
        }
    }
  
    private fun collapseParentRow(position: Int){
        val currentBoardingRow = list[position]
        val services = currentBoardingRow.subList
        list[position].isExpanded = false
        if(list[position].type==Constants.PARENT){
            services.forEach { _ ->
                list.removeAt(position + 1)
            }
            notifyDataSetChanged()
        }
    }
  
    override fun getItemViewType(position: Int): Int = list[position].type
  
    override fun getItemId(position: Int): Long {
        return position.toLong()
    }
  
    class GroupViewHolder(row: View) : RecyclerView.ViewHolder(row) {
        val parentTV = row.findViewById(R.id.parent_Title) as TextView?
        val downIV  = row.findViewById(R.id.down_iv) as ImageView?
    }
    class ChildViewHolder(row: View) : RecyclerView.ViewHolder(row) {
        val childTV = row.findViewById(R.id.child_Title) as TextView?
  
    }
}

6. Adding Logic in the Adapter class

In this step, we will discuss how the adapter shows our data.  

Kotlin




override fun getItemViewType(position: Int): Int = list[position].type

This line is used to set the view type, by default ParentData object type is the parent so it shows the list of parent items. But why we are adding this type here. When you are binding the data to a view, to know which type of viewType is coming by the adapter method like below

Kotlin




override fun onCreateViewHolder(parent: ViewGroup, viewType: Int): RecyclerView.ViewHolder {
        return   if(viewType== Constants.PARENT){
            val rowView: View = LayoutInflater.from(parent.context).inflate(R.layout.parent_row, parent,false)
           GroupViewHolder(rowView)
        } else{
            val rowView: View = LayoutInflater.from(parent.context).inflate(R.layout.child_row, parent,false)
           ChildViewHolder(rowView)
        }
    }

This method comes with viewType, which is already set before. Now we have the chance to check which type is coming. If it is a parent then we can inflate (converting layout to view) parent_row or  child_row and return GroupViewHolder(rowView) or ChildViewHolder(rowView)

parent_row.xml

XML




<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_marginBottom="4dp"
    android:background="@color/lightblue"
    android:layout_height="50dp">
  
    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/parent_Title"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textSize="20sp"
        app:layout_constraintBottom_toBottomOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.099"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintVertical_bias="0.419" />
  
    <ImageView
        android:id="@+id/down_iv"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:src="@drawable/ic_dropdown"
        app:layout_constraintBottom_toBottomOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.896"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toEndOf="@+id/parent_Title"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent" />
  
</androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout>

child_row.xml

XML




<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_marginBottom="4dp"
    android:background="@color/purple_200"
    android:layout_height="30dp">
  
    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/child_Title"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textSize="14sp"
        app:layout_constraintBottom_toBottomOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.099"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintVertical_bias="0.036" />
  
  
</androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout>

7. How to bind the data to views

Kotlin




override fun onBindViewHolder(holder: RecyclerView.ViewHolder, position: Int) {
 
       val dataList = list[position]
       if (dataList.type == Constants.PARENT) {
           holder as GroupViewHolder
           holder.apply {
               parentTV?.text = dataList.parentTitle
               downIV?.setOnClickListener {
                   expandOrCollapseParentItem(dataList,position)
               }
           }
       } else {
           holder as ChildViewHolder
 
           holder.apply {
               val singleService = dataList.subList.first()
               childTV?.text =singleService.childTitle
           }
       }
   }

This method comes with a holder. Now we have to check by using the type if it is a parent then we can use as(instance of in java) keyword to bind the data view like holder as GroupViewHolder.

8. How Expand/Collapse Logic works

When the user clicks on the down arrow image we call the expandOrCollapseParentItem function. This function checks whether the parent is expanded or not like below.

Kotlin




private fun expandOrCollapseParentItem(singleBoarding: ParentData,position: Int) {
        if (singleBoarding.isExpanded) {
            collapseParentRow(position)
        } else {
            expandParentRow(position)
        }
    }

First, will see the expandParentRow functionality 

Kotlin




private fun expandParentRow(position: Int){
       val currentBoardingRow = list[position]
       val services = currentBoardingRow.subList
       currentBoardingRow.isExpanded = true
       var nextPosition = position
       if(currentBoardingRow.type==Constants.PARENT){
 
           services.forEach { service ->
               val parentModel =  ParentData()
               parentModel.type = Constants.CHILD
               val subList : ArrayList<ChildData> = ArrayList()
               subList.add(service)
               parentModel.subList=subList
               list.add(++nextPosition,parentModel)
           }
           notifyDataSetChanged()
       }
   }

Let’s see, how the expand logic works, when the expandParentRow function is called with the position. We get the data by position from that we get the sublist. Again we are adding sublist items by using for each and increasing the current position with +1 like below

Kotlin




list.add(++nextPosition,parentModel)

here, we are adding parentModel to the list and adding the type as Constants.CHILD, after adding the items we call notifyDataSetChanged(), so again recycler view will load with new data.  While binding the data again it will check the type and the data to its view. The same logic works for collapse and there we will do the reverse operation. Finally, we need to add this adapter to the RecyclerView like below.

Kotlin




val exRecycleView = findViewById<RecyclerView>(R.id.exRecycle)
        exRecycleView.layoutManager = LinearLayoutManager(this)
        exRecycleView.adapter = RecycleAdapter(this@MainActivity,listData)

and our main_layout.xml file where we added the recycler view.

XML




<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout 
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    tools:context=".MainActivity">
  
  
    <androidx.recyclerview.widget.RecyclerView
        android:id="@+id/exRecycle"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent"/>
  
</androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout>

Output:

Output


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