Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Cells are classified into prokaryotic (primitive cell) and eukaryotic cells on the basis of the nucleus. Pk is a primitive cell while Ek evolved from the pk cell with a nucleus. Pk doesn’t have a true nucleus and compartmentalization because of which the genetic material is present with other organelles in the cytoplasm, but Ek cells evolve the compartmentalization and having all the organelles in a cell. Ek has the genetic material intact in the nucleus.
Organelles and a membrane-bound nucleus are only seen in eukaryotic cells. Large and complex creatures are made up of eukaryotic cells, which have a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Eukaryotic cells are found in fungi, plants, mammals, and protozoa. They are categorized as belonging to the Eukaryota kingdom. They have chromosomes, which organize their genetic material. The Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, ribosomes, and nucleus are all present in eukaryotic cells.
Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cell
- In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear membrane encapsulates the nucleus.
- Cell membranes are the term for eukaryotic cells’ outermost layer.
- The way cells divide is through the mitosis process.
- The cytoskeleton is present in eukaryotic cells.
- The mitochondria of the cell exist
- In a eukaryotic cell, the locomotory organs are flagella and cilia.
- A unique, linear DNA located in the nucleus maintains all of the genetic material.
Prokaryotic cells are single-celled microorganisms that are thought to be the oldest on the planet. Bacteria and Archaea are examples of prokaryotes. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that perform photosynthesis. Because a prokaryotic cell has a single membrane, all processes take place within the cytoplasm. They can be either free-living or parasitic.
Characteristics of Prokaryote Cell
Different characteristics distinguish prokaryotic cells. The properties of prokaryotic cells are discussed further below.
- They lack histone proteins, which are essential components of eukaryotic chromosomes.
- Carbohydrates and amino acids make up the cell wall.
- The plasma membrane serves as the mitochondrial membrane, which transports respiratory enzymes.
- They split asexually through binary fission. Conjugation is a sexual mode of reproduction.
- They do not have a nuclear membrane.
- There are no mitochondria, Golgi bodies, chloroplasts, or lysosomes.
- The genetic material is only found on one chromosome.
Differences Between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Cell have membrane-bound organelles that are absent
Cells have membrane-bound organelles is present
There isn’t a clearly defined nucleus. Additionally, there is the nucleoid, a DNA-containing open area, present here.
There is undoubtedly a distinct nucleus present in this. Additionally, a nuclear membrane surrounds it.
The size of the cell is smaller (0.1–5 μm).
In comparison, the cell size is bigger (10-100 μm).
Their DNA is circular in shape.
Their DNA is linear in structure.
|Type of Cell|
This cell has a unicellular structure
Multicellular eukaryotic cells predominate. Nevertheless, some are monocellular.
|Lysosome and Peroxisome|
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes absent
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes present
|Microtubules||Microtubules are absent||Microtubules are present|
|Endoplasmic Reticulum||The endoplasmic reticulum is absent||The endoplasmic reticulum is present|
|Mitochondria||Mitochondria is absent||Mitochondria is present|
|Cytoskeleton||Cytoskeleton is absent||Cytoskeleton is present|
|Ribosomes||Ribosomes are smaller||Ribosomes are larger|
|Vesicles||Vesicles are present||Vesicles are present|
|Cell Wall||The cell wall is present||Cell wall not present in Ek cell|
|Cell Divison||Pk cell divide by binary fission||Ek cell divide by a process known as mitosis.|
|Reproduction||Asexual Reproduction||Ek shows both sexual and asexual reproduction|
|Flagella||Present but smaller in size.||Large-size flagella.|
|Example||Archea, Bacteria||Plant, Fungi, Animal Cell|
FAQs on Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cell
Question 1: What is a Eukaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic cells are those cells having a nucleus in the cell which carries the genetic material of the cell.
Question 2: What is a Prokaryotic cell?
Cells not having true nucleus such cells are known as prokaryotic cells.
Question 3: What are the differences between animal and plant cells?
Majorly cells of animals and plants cells are the same. But plant cells have an extra protective layer known as a cell wall which is not present in an animal cell.
Question 4: Who discovered Cell and Cell Theory?
Robert Hooke discovered the cell in 1665. Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schledien give the cell theory in 1830.
Please Login to comment...