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Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS) in Application Layer

Last Updated : 12 Feb, 2023
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When DNS (Domain Name System) was designed, nobody expected that there would be so many address changes such as adding a new host, removing a host, or changing an IP address. When there is a change, the change must be made to the DNS master file which needs a lot of manual updating and it must be updated dynamically. 

Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS): It is a method of automatically updating a name server in the Domain Name Server (DNS), often in real-time, with the active DDNS configuration of its configured hostnames, addresses, or other information. In DDNS, when a binding between a name and an address is determined, the information is sent, usually by DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) to a primary DNS server. The primary server updates the zone. The secondary servers are notified either actively or passively. Inactive notification, the primary server sends a message to secondary servers, whereas, in passive notification, the secondary servers periodically check for any changes. In either case, after being notified about the change, the secondary requests information about the entire zone (zone transfer). DDNS can use an authentication mechanism to provide security and prevent unauthorized changes in DNS records.

By using DDNS, users can create a hostname (e.g. “”) that will always point to their router’s current IP address, making it easy to connect to devices on their home network from anywhere in the world 

Advantages :

  1. Accessibility: DDNS allows users to connect to devices on their home network from anywhere in the world, using a hostname instead of a constantly changing IP address. This makes it easy to remotely access files, control IoT devices, and perform other tasks.
  2. Convenience: DDNS eliminates the need to manually update IP addresses, which can be a tedious and time-consuming task.
  3. Compatibility: DDNS is compatible with a wide range of devices and services, including Remote Desktops, FTP, and VPN, making it easy to connect to a variety of devices on a home network.
  4. Ease of use: DDNS services are often easy to set up and use, with user-friendly interfaces and clear instructions.
  5. Dynamic IP support: DDNS allows devices on a network to have dynamic IP addresses, which are assigned by the router and can change over time. This allows users to use a hostname to connect to the device even if the IP address changes.
  6. Cost-effective: Many DDNS providers offer free service, and it is a cost-effective solution for enabling remote access to devices on a home network.
  7. Backup: DDNS service can be used as a backup solution for the static IP address, in case the static IP address is lost.

Disadvantages :

  1. Reliability: DDNS services rely on the availability of the DDNS provider’s servers. If the provider’s servers are down, the hostname will not resolve to the correct IP address, making it impossible to connect to devices on the home network.
  2. Security: Because DDNS services link a hostname to a dynamic IP address, it can potentially make it easier for hackers to find and target specific devices on a home network.
  3. Cost: Some DDNS providers charge a fee for their services, and the cost can add up over time.
  4. Latency: Some DDNS providers may experience latency issues when trying to update the IP address associated with a hostname, which can cause delays in connecting to devices on the home network.
  5. Limited Control: DDNS services are often operated by third-party companies, which means that users have limited control over the settings and configuration of the service.

Uses :

  1. It is used for Internet access devices such as routers.
  2. It is used by security appliance manufacturers and is even required for IP-based security appliances like DVRs.
  3. Remote access to home network resources such as computers, cameras, and file servers
  4. Running a personal website or web server from a home internet connection
  5. Setting up a VPN or secure proxy connection to a home network
  6. Enabling access to home automation systems and Internet of Things (IoT) devices
  7. Facilitating gaming and application hosting from a home network.

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