The concept of Neural Networks is inspired by the neurons in the human brain and scientists wanted a machine to replicate the same process. This craved a path to one of the most important topics in Artificial Intelligence. A Neural Network (NN) is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons, which loosely model the neurons in a biological brain. Since such a network is created artificially in machines, we refer to that as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). This article assumes that you have a decent knowledge of ANN. More about ANN can be found here.
Now, let us go narrower into the details of Dropout in ANN.
When a fully-connected layer has a large number of neurons, co-adaption is more likely to happen. Co-adaptation refers to when multiple neurons in a layer extract the same, or very similar, hidden features from the input data. This can happen when the connection weights for two different neurons are nearly identical.
This poses two different problems to our model:
- Wastage of machine’s resources when computing the same output.
- If many neurons are extracting the same features, it adds more significance to those features for our model. This leads to overfitting if the duplicate extracted features are specific to only the training set.
Solution to the problem:
As the title suggests, we use dropout while training the NN to minimize co-adaption.
In dropout, we randomly shut down some fraction of a layer’s neurons at each training step by zeroing out the neuron values. The fraction of neurons to be zeroed out is known as the dropout rate, . The remaining neurons have their values multiplied by so that the overall sum of the neuron values remains the same.
The two images represent dropout applied to a layer of 6 units, shown at multiple training steps. The dropout rate is 1/3, and the remaining 4 neurons at each training step have their value scaled by x1.5. Thereby, we are choosing a random sample of neurons rather than training the whole network at once. This ensures that the co-adaption is solved and they learn the hidden features better.
Dropout can be applied to a network using TensorFlow APIs as,
- Activation functions in Neural Networks
- Depth wise Separable Convolutional Neural Networks
- Neural Networks | A beginners guide
- Recurrent Neural Networks Explanation
- ML | Transfer Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks
- Capsule Neural Networks | ML
- Artificial Neural Networks and its Applications
- DeepPose: Human Pose Estimation via Deep Neural Networks
- Multiple Labels Using Convolutional Neural Networks
- Single Layered Neural Networks in R Programming
- Activation functions in Neural Networks | Set2
- Signed Networks in Social Networks
- Implementing Artificial Neural Network training process in Python
- Introduction to Convolution Neural Network
- Introduction to Artificial Neural Network | Set 2
- A single neuron neural network in Python
- Applying Convolutional Neural Network on mnist dataset
- Introduction to Recurrent Neural Network
- Importance of Convolutional Neural Network | ML
- Deep Neural net with forward and back propagation from scratch - Python
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