In Computer Architecture, the Registers are very fast computer memory which are used to execute programs and operations efficiently. This does by giving access to commonly used values, i.e., the values which are in the point of operation/execution at that time. So, for this purpose, there are several different classes of CPU registers which works in coordination with the computer memory to run operations efficiently.
These are classified as given below.
This is the most frequently used register used to store data taken from memory. It is in different numbers in different microprocessors.
- Memory Address Registers (MAR):
It holds the address of the location to be accessed from memory. MAR and MDR (Memory Data Register) together facilitate the communication of the CPU and the main memory.
- Memory Data Registers (MDR):
It contains data to be written into or to be read out from the addressed location.
- General Purpose Registers:
These are numbered as R0, R1, R2….Rn, and used to store temporary data during any ongoing operation. Its content can be accessed by assembly programming.
- Program Counter (PC):
Program Counter (PC) is used to keep the track of execution of the program. It contains the memory address of the next instruction to be fetched. PC points to the address of the next instruction to be fetched from the main memory when the previous instruction has been successfully completed. Program Counter (PC) also functions to count the number of instructions.
- Instruction Register (IR):
It is the register which holds the instruction which is currently been executed.
So, these are the different registers which are operating for a specific purpose.
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