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Differences Between TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3

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  • Last Updated : 07 Jan, 2022
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Transport Layer Security is a successor of the Secure Sockets Layer it was developed in order to provide a safe channel between two parties. The key purpose of TLS is to validate peers, fend off eavesdropping, and make communication tamper-proof by confirming the authenticity of messages. The objective of the protocol is to validate all data, keep its confidentiality, and preserve its integrity.  

There are two main parts of TLS that are:

  • Handshake Protocol: The role of handshake protocol is to verify the communicating side, work out the cryptographic parameters and modes, and in establishing shared secret keys of length, format, and amount or simply keying material.  Handshake protocol does this by generating input secret values, which are then compiled by an algorithm known as the key derivation algorithm into the working keying material. The parties in this phase depend on the public key cryptography and use the receiver’s public key to encode the message. The receiver uses a private key to decipher the message upon receiving.
     
  • Record Protocol uses the parameters set up by the previous handshake protocol to safeguard the transmission between the communicating sides. In TLS 1.3, the key derivation process relies on KDF based on HMAC  also known as HMAC-based Extract and Expand key derivation functions, and the Hash function of the cipher suite which is basically made up of three different cryptographic algorithms.

TLS 1.2: TLS 1.2 is an advanced version of TLS 1.1. It was designed for both improved reliability and high performance and also offers better security.

TLS 1.3: It is the latest version of TLS, it is used by various network protocols for encoding, it is the modern version of SSL.

Difference Between TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3:

There are some differences between TLS version 1.2 and the TLS version1.3. TLS version 1.3 offers various improvements over older versions. Version 1.3 was developed to enhance performance and security and for eliminating several complexities.  

S.NO

TLS 1.2

TLS 1.3

1.

In TLS version 1.2 many messages move to-and-fro between Client and Server.While TLS version 1.3 aims to reduce the time taken by the handshake process by reducing the to-and-fro messages between the Client and the Server.

2.

TLS version 1.2 has a slower TLS handshakeWhile; TLS version 1.3 has a faster TLS handshake

3.

It has a more complex handshake.While; it has a simpler handshake.

4.

TLS version 1.2 has less secure Cipher suites.While; TLS version 1.3 has more secure Cipher suites.

5.

Its round-trip time is not zero.While; its round-trip time is zero.

6.

A typical handshake in TLS version 1.2 involves the exchange of 5 to 7 packets.While; in TLS version 1.3 a typical handshake involves the exchange of 0 to 3 packets.

7.

It has a slower and less responsive connection.While; it has a faster and more responsive connection.

8.

TLS version 1.2 does not shrink the size of cipher suites.While TLS version 1.3 shrinks the size of cipher suites.

9.

Comparatively poor website performance and user experience.While; it offers better website performance and user experience.

TLS 1.3 protocol has many advantages over its older version such as increased performance, security, and zero round trip time, which makes it most promising to be implemented in today’s time.

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