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Difference between ELM and Typescript

Last Updated : 29 Mar, 2023
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ELM: Elm is a purely functional domain-based programming language used for front-end web development. Its syntax is different from what we have been doing in other coding languages. There are no loops and has lots of arrows and triangles. When it comes to which programming language should we learn first, Elm is ranked 15th while TypeScript is ranked 16th. Elm language guarantees no runtime errors which make it stand out from the other coding languages. Elm is a strongly typed web-based language. In Elm no variables are created, just models are created. Elm automatically stores them in the memory. Elm is more of functional development. However, people do get stuck while learning it and eventually give up because of its unique architecture but once you get your head around it, you’ll start enjoying it.

Since JavaScript is hard to maintain, we have to refactor it, and has maintainability issues, for which Elm came into action. It is easy to refactor with fewer bugs and it’s faster than JavaScript. Since Elm is a functional programming language it has features like pure functions (where it will produce the same output for a similar input), and immutability which makes it faster. Elm uses virtual DOM and diffing. Diffing means taking the current and new virtual DOM and spotting differences. Elm is also easy to maintain using functions. We write functions and then combine them together like Lego to build a complete program.

Features of ELM:

  • Functional programming: ELM is a functional programming language that encourages immutability and pure functions.
  • Strong typing: ELM is a strongly typed language, which helps catch errors at compile time.
  • HTML integration: ELM allows for seamless integration with HTML and provides a clean syntax for writing HTML views.
  • No runtime errors: ELM has a runtime that prevents runtime errors, making it more reliable than other languages.
  • Immutable data structures: ELM uses immutable data structures, which means that data is never modified in place.

TypeScript: It is an open-source programming language that is built over JavaScript, also known as the Superset of JavaScript. All valid JavaScript codes are also TypeScript code. You might get some errors but the program still runs in TypeScript as well. TypeScript has its own compiler called TypeScript compiler or Babel which converts TypeScript codes into JavaScript codes. Hence, Typescript is built on JavaScript. TypeScript protects the program from small errors as the compiler automatically catches them and saves time. TypeScript’s typing system is better than JavaScript. TypeScript provides a better way of documentation and authenticates that the code is working correctly. 

Features of TypeScript:

  • Object-oriented programming: TypeScript is an object-oriented programming language that supports classes, interfaces, and inheritance.
  • Strong typing: TypeScript is a strongly typed language that provides type annotations to catch errors at compile time.
  • JavaScript compatibility: TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, which means that it is fully compatible with existing JavaScript code.
  • Large community: TypeScript has a large community of developers, which means that it has a vast ecosystem of tools and resources.
  • Tooling support: TypeScript has excellent tooling support, including IDEs and code editors.

Similarities between ELM and TypeScript:

  • Strong typing: Both ELM and TypeScript are strongly typed languages that provide type annotations to catch errors at compile time.
  • Functional programming: While TypeScript is not strictly a functional programming language, it does support some functional programming concepts, such as higher-order functions and immutable data structures.
  • Interoperability: Both ELM and TypeScript can interoperate with other languages, frameworks, and libraries.
  • Type inference: Both ELM and TypeScript provide type inference, which means that types can be inferred automatically from the code.
  • Open-source: Both ELM and TypeScript are open-source and have active communities of developers.

ELM vs TypeScript:

                                     ELM                                                         TypeScript
Elm is a purely functional domain-based programming language Typescript is an open-source language.
There are no loops and contains lots of arrows and triangles.  It contains loops and all valid JavaScript codes are TypeScript codes too.
 Elm language guarantees no runtime errors.  One might get errors in TypeScript.  
 Elm does not have any compiler of its own but one needs JavaScript to execute in the browser.   TypeScript has its own compiler called TypeScript compiler or Babel which converts TypeScript code into JavaScript codes.
There is no such thing as “any” in ELM language hence coders are forced to write proper and full-fledged codes.  No need to write full-fledged codes because type inference grants power and one doesn’t need to write full codes.  
 Elm uses virtual DOM and diffing. TypeScript could use Virtual DOM but doesn’t use diffing.
Elm is not a superscript like TypeScript nor it is a JavaScript framework or library.   TypeScript is a superscript and easy to refactor code.
Elm is an inferred, reactive language that compiles with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to make an interactive GUI front end.  We can write TypeScript codes with future JavaScript features without worrying about code being supported in the IDE because we can change it into multiple JavaScript flavors.
 Elm has beaten React and Angular when it comes to speed.  TypeScript has average speed.
In Elm no variables are created, just models are created and Elm automatically stores them in the memory.   TypeScript protects from all null or undefined objects. No unused parameters or variables that can be stored in a TypeScript language.  

Both Elm and TypeScript have their pros and cons but it depends on how one uses the resources to their fullest.

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