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Difference between SQL and HiveQL

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1. Structured Query Language (SQL): SQL is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system also known as RDBMS. It is also useful in handling structured data, i.e., data incorporating relations among entities and variables. SQL is a standard language for storing, manipulating, and retrieving data in databases. 

2. Hive Query Language (HiveQL): HiveQL is a query language for Hive to analyze and process structured data in a Meta-store.  It is a mixture of SQL-92, MySQL, and Oracle’s SQL.  It is very much similar to SQL and highly scalable. It reuses familiar concepts from the relational database world, such as tables, rows, columns and schema, to ease learning. Hive supports four file formats those are TEXT FILE, SEQUENCE FILE, ORC and RC FILE (Record Columnar File). 

Differences between SQL and HiveQL is as follows:  

On the basis of SQLHiveQL
Update-commands in table structureUPDATE, DELETE 
ManagesRelational dataData Structures
TransactionSupportedLimited Support Supported
Data TypesIt contain a total of five data types i.e., Integral, floating-point, fixed-point, text and binary strings, temporalIt contains  Boolean, integral, floating-point, fixed-point, timestamp(nanosecond precision) , Date, text and binary strings, temporal, array, map, struct, Union
FunctionsHundreds of built-in functionsHundreds of built-in functions
MapreduceNot SupportedSupported
Multitable inserts in tableNot supportedSupported
Create table…as SelectNot supportedSupported
Select commandSupportedSupported with SORT BY clause for partial ordering and LIMIT to restrict number of rows returned
JoinsSupportedInner joins, outer joins, semi join, map joins, cross joins
SubqueriesSupportedOnly Used in FROM, WHERE, or HAVING clauses
ViewsCan be UpdatedRead-only i.e. cannot be updated
Last Updated : 24 Nov, 2022
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