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Difference between Private key and Public key

Last Updated : 19 Jan, 2023
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Cryptography is the science of secret writing with the intention of keeping the data secret. Cryptography is classified into symmetric cryptography, asymmetric cryptography, and hashing

Private Key: 

In the Private key, the same key (secret key) is used for encryption and decryption. In this key is symmetric because the only key is copied or shared by another party to decrypt the cipher text. It is faster than public-key cryptography. 

Public Key: 

In a Public key, two keys are used one key is used for encryption and another key is used for decryption. One key (public key) is used to encrypt the plain text to convert it into cipher text and another key (private key) is used by the receiver to decrypt the cipher text to read the message. Now, we see the difference between them:

Difference between Private Key and Public Key:

S.NO Private Key Public Key
1. The private key is faster than the public key. It is slower than a private key.
2. In this, the same key (secret key) and algorithm are used to encrypt and decrypt the message. In public-key cryptography, two keys are used, one key is used for encryption, and the other is used for decryption.
3. In private key cryptography, the key is kept a secret. In public-key cryptography, one of the two keys is kept a secret.
4. The private key is Symmetrical because there is only one key that is called a secret key. The public key is Asymmetrical because there are two types of keys: private and public keys.
5. In this cryptography, the sender and receiver need to share the same key. In this cryptography, the sender and receiver do not need to share the same key.
6. In this cryptography, the key is private. In this cryptography, the public key can be public and a private key is private.
7. It is an efficient technology. It is an inefficient technology.
8. It is used for large amounts of text. It is used for only short messages.
9. There is the possibility of losing the key that renders the systems void. There is less possibility of key loss, as the key is held publicly.
10. The private key is to be shared between two parties. The public key can be used by anyone.
11. The Performance testing checks the reliability, scalability, and speed of the system. The Load testing checks the sustainability of the system.
12. The private key is used in algorithms such as AES 128, AES 192 and AES 256. The public key is used in algorithms such as RSA, DSA, etc.
13. The private key is kept secret. The public key is widely distributed.
14. It is used to protect disk drives and other data storage devices. It is used to secure web sessions and emails.
15. The recipient’s private key decrypts the message. The recipient’s public key encrypts the message.
16. If the private key is the locking key, then the system can be used to verify documents sent by the holder of the private key. If the public key is the locking key, then it can be used to send private communication.

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