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Difference between HashMap and IdentityHashMap in Java

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  • Last Updated : 19 Jan, 2021
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HashMap in java is a class that is a part of the java collection. It implements the Map interface of java. It stores the data in the form of key and value pair. The key should be unique but the value may be duplicate. If you try to insert the duplicate key, it will replace the element of the corresponding key. HashMap is similar to the hash table, but it is unsynchronized. It allows to store the null keys as well null values, but there should be only one null key and there can be any number of null values.

IdentityHashMap implements the Map interface. It follows reference-equality in place of object-equality when comparing keys (and values). This class is used when the user requires the objects to be compared via reference. It is not synchronized and must be synchronized externally. The iterators in this class are fail-fast, throw ConcurrentModificationException in an attempt to modify while iterating.

HashMap and IdentityHashMap both are the classes that implement the Map interface. But there are few differences that exist between them.

Example 1: HashMap


// Java program to illustrate
// the working of Java HashMap
// to demonstrate
// internal working difference between them
// Importing HashMap class from
// java.util package
import java.util.HashMap;
// Class
public class GFG {
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
        // Creating an empty HashMap object
        HashMap<Integer, String> map = new HashMap<>();
        // Add elements to the map
        // Custom inputs
        map.put(10, "Geeks");
        map.put(20, "for");
        map.put(30, "geeks");
        map.put(40, "welcome");
        map.put(50, "you");
        // Printing the size of map
        System.out.println("Size of map is:- "
                           + map.size());
        // Printing the HashMap content
        System.out.println("HashMap content: " + map);
        // Removing a key 50
        // Printing the HashMap after the removal
        System.out.println("HashMap after removal : "
                           + map);


Size of map is:- 5
HashMap content: {50=you, 20=for, 40=welcome, 10=Geeks, 30=geeks}
HashMap after removal : {20=for, 40=welcome, 10=Geeks, 30=geeks}

Example 2: IdentityHashMap


// Java program to illustrate
// working of IdentityHashmap
// to demonstrate
// internal working difference between them
// Importing all classes of
// java.util package
import java.util.*;
// Class for iterating IdentityHashMap
public class GFG {
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
        // Creating an empty IdentityHashMap object
        IdentityHashMap<Integer, String> ihmap
            = new IdentityHashMap<Integer, String>();
        // Mapping string values to int keys
        // Custom inputs --> Custom mappings
        ihmap.put(10, "Geeks");
        ihmap.put(20, "for");
        ihmap.put(30, "Geeks");
        ihmap.put(40, "Welcomes");
        ihmap.put(50, "You");
        // Display the size of IdentityHashMap
        System.out.println("IdentityHashMap size : "
                           + ihmap.size());
        // Display the IdentityHashMap
        System.out.println("Initial identity hash map: "
                           + ihmap);
        // Create an Iterator over the IdentityHashMap
        Iterator<IdentityHashMap.Entry<Integer, String> >
            itr = ihmap.entrySet().iterator();
        // Condition check using hasNext() method()
        // Condition check using hasNext() method holding
        // true if there is any next element remaining
        while (itr.hasNext()) {
            // next() method which is used to
            // retrieve the next element
            IdentityHashMap.Entry<Integer, String> entry
            // Print and display key and value pairs
            // using getKey() method
            System.out.println("Key = " + entry.getKey()
                               + ", Value = "
                               + entry.getValue());


IdentityHashMap size : 5
Initial identity hash map: {10=Geeks, 40=Welcomes, 50=You, 30=Geeks, 20=for}
Key = 10, Value = Geeks
Key = 40, Value = Welcomes
Key = 50, Value = You
Key = 30, Value = Geeks
Key = 20, Value = for

Difference between HashMap and IdentityHashMap in Java

S.NO.                    HashMap                               IdentityHashMap
1.HashMap implements the Map interface but it doesn’t violate the map general contract.IdentityHashMap also implements the Map interface but it intentionally violates the map general contract.
2. HashMap uses object equality to compare the key and values.IdentityHashMap uses reference equality to compare the key and values.
3. HashMap uses the hashCode() method of HashMap class to find the bucket location.IdentityHashMap doesn’t use the hashCode() method instead it uses the System.IdentityHashCode() method to find the bucket location.
4.HashMap uses chaining.IdentityHashMap uses a simple liner probe hash table.
5.To safely store the objects in HashMap the keys need to be immutable.IdentityHashMap doesn’t require the key to be immutable.
6.HashMap performs slightly less than the IdentityHashMap.IdentityHashMap performs better than HashMap.

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