Design Patterns in Java – Iterator Pattern
A design pattern is proved solution for solving the specific problem/task. We need to keep in mind that design patterns are programming language independent for solving the common object-oriented design problems. In Other Words, a design pattern represents an idea, not a particular implementation. Using design patterns you can make your code more flexible, reusable, and maintainable.
Types of design patterns: There are 3 types of Design Patterns in java that are depicted more clearly in a tabular format below.
- Behavioral Design Pattern
- Creational Design Pattern
- Structural Design Pattern
|Iterator Pattern||Factory Pattern||Adapter Pattern|
|Interpreter Pattern||Abstract Factory Pattern||Bridge Pattern|
|Mediator Pattern||Singleton Pattern||Composite Pattern|
|Memento Pattern||Prototype Pattern||Decorator Pattern|
|Observer Pattern||Builder Pattern||Facade Pattern|
|State Pattern||Flyweight Pattern|
|Strategy Pattern||Proxy Pattern|
Behavioural – Iterator Pattern
Here we will be discussing Iterator Pattern with an example.
- The iterator pattern is a great pattern for providing navigation without exposing the structure of an object.
- Traverse a container. In Java and most current programming languages, there’s the notion of a collection. List, Maps, Sets are all examples of a collection that we would want to traverse. Historically we use a loop of some sort and index into your collection to traverse it.
- Doesn’t expose the underlying structure of the object we want to navigate. Navigating various structures may have different algorithms or approaches to cycle through the data.
- Decouples the data from the algorithm used to traverse it
Design: Iterator Pattern
- It is an interface-based design pattern. Whichever object you want to iterate over will provide a method to return an instance of an iterator from it.
- Follows a factory-based method pattern in the way you get an instance of the iterator.
- Each iterator is developed in such a way that it is independent of another.
- Iterators also Fail Fast. Fail Fast means that iterators can’t modify the underlying object without an error being thrown.
- The Collection interface is extended by the List Interface.
- List Interface contains a factory method iterator(). This iterator factory method returns an instance of the Iterator Interface.
- In the case of the list and its implementations, the underlying instances are ListIterator.
- The ListIterator is an implementation of the Iterator interface that understands how to iterate over the various list objects in the Collection API. It declares the interface for objects in the composition.
There are some pitfalls of iterator which are as follows:
- You don’t have access to an index of any sort. If you want to get an element of a certain position, there is no way to do that without just iterating though. In the case of sets and maps, there isn’t a method to grab an element at a certain index position
- UniDirectional: It iterates objects in forwarding direction only.
- Although iterator is the most efficient way to looping through objects of any sort. But in some cases, it may be slower than using an index and looping through it.
- An iterator is an efficient way to traverse an object.
- Hides the algorithm from the client, so that simplicity for your client is contained within the algorithm that you have coated in the container you’re creating an iterator for
- Helps us to simplify that client.
- Helps us to take advantage of the for each syntax which definitely simplifies iterating over that object in a for each loop.