Data Communication Terminologies

Data means information in digital format and communication means to exchange information between two or many users in anyways like speaking, texting, or any other modes of the medium. So, data communication is simply the exchange of data between two or many users through the transmission media like twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, optical fibers, radio wave, satellite microwave, etc. The user or device that sends the data is the source and the user that receives the data is a receiver.

Here are some data communication terminologies listed below:

1. Data Channel :
Channel simply means a path to carry or flow. Data channel means the flow of data or to carry the data from one device to another. In other words, we can say the data channel is a computer path or medium used to transfer the data from sender to receiver.
There are some data channel protocols:

  • SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) – Flow and Congestion Control
  • DTLS (Datagram Transport Layer Security) – Provides Security
  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) / IP (Internet Protocol) – Connectionless communication protocol, NAT (Network address translational) traversal

2. Baud :
It’s actually a common measurement unit of data transfer. Baud rate measures the rate at which the data is transferred from the sender to the receiver in the data channel. It can be expressed in terms of bps (bits per second). It simply determines the speed of data transfer.

3. Bits Per Second (bps) :
Its symbol is “bit/s”. It can be present in two forms i.e. bps (bits per second) and Bps (Bytes per second). It’s also a measurement unit of speed at which the data is transferred. Some other forms are also present as shown in the table below:



S.No. Rate Denoted By Full Form
1 Rate of thousand bits per second kbps Kilobits per second
2 Rate of thousand bytes per second Kbps Kilobytes per second
3 Rate of million bits per second mbps Megabits per second
4 Rate of Million bytes per second Mbps Megabytes per second

4. Bandwidth :
It’s the range of frequencies over which a communication system works. It generally measures the amount of data that can be transferred in a given amount of time over a data channel. It’s the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies of a data channel. The measurement unit of frequency is cycles per second i.e. hertz.

S.No. Type of the Signal Range of Frequency in Hertz Bandwidth in Hertz
1 Voice signal 300-3400 3, 100
2 TV signal 0-5 MHz 5 MHz
3 Digital Data 300-3400 3, 100
4 Music Signal 20-15000 14, 980

5. DTR (Data Transfer Rates) :
It determines the rate of speed at which the data is transferred from one point to another. Its measurement unit is bits per second (bps), Bytes per second (Bps), or baud. In computer, data transfer is mainly measured in Bytes per second. Data transfer between devices such as Hard disk and CD-ROM is usually measured in milliseconds.

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