The Common Table Expressions (CTE) were introduced into standard SQL in order to simplify various classes of SQL Queries for which a derived table was just unsuitable. CTE was introduced in SQL Server 2005, the common table expression (CTE) is a temporary named result set that you can reference within a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement. You can also use a CTE in a CREATE a view, as part of the view’s SELECT query. In addition, as of SQL Server 2008, you can add a CTE to the new MERGE statement.
Using the CTE –
We can define CTEs by adding a WITH clause directly before SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or MERGE statement. The WITH clause can include one or more CTEs seperated by commas. The following syntax can be followed:
[WITH [, ...]] ::= cte_name [(column_name [, ...])] AS (cte_query)
After you define your WITH clause with the CTEs, you can then reference the CTEs as you would refer any other table. However, you can refer a CTE only within the execution scope of the statement that immediately follows the WITH clause. After you’ve run your statement, the CTE result set is not available to other statements.
Creating a Recursive Common Table Expression –
A recursive CTE is one that references itself within that CTE. The recursive CTE is useful when working with hierarchical data as the CTE continues to execute until the query returns the entire hierarchy.
A typical example of hierarchical data is a table that includes a list of employees. For every employee, the table provides a reference to that person’s manager. That reference is itself an employee ID within the same table. You can use a recursive CTE to display the hierarchy of employee data.
If a CTE is created incorrectly it can enter an infinite loop. To prevent this, the MAXRECURSION hint can be added in the OPTION clause of the primary SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or MERGE statement.
A table is created:
CREATE TABLE Employees ( EmployeeID int NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, FirstName varchar(50) NOT NULL, LastName varchar(50) NOT NULL, ManagerID int NULL ) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (1, 'Ken', 'Thompson', NULL) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (2, 'Terri', 'Ryan', 1) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (3, 'Robert', 'Durello', 1) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (4, 'Rob', 'Bailey', 2) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (5, 'Kent', 'Erickson', 2) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (6, 'Bill', 'Goldberg', 3) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (7, 'Ryan', 'Miller', 3) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (8, 'Dane', 'Mark', 5) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (9, 'Charles', 'Matthew', 6) INSERT INTO Employees VALUES (10, 'Michael', 'Jhonson', 6)
After the Employees table is created, following SELECT statement, which is preceded by a WITH clause that includes a CTE named cteReports is created:
WITH cteReports (EmpID, FirstName, LastName, MgrID, EmpLevel) AS ( SELECT EmployeeID, FirstName, LastName, ManagerID, 1 FROM Employees WHERE ManagerID IS NULL UNION ALL SELECT e.EmployeeID, e.FirstName, e.LastName, e.ManagerID, r.EmpLevel + 1 FROM Employees e INNER JOIN cteReports r ON e.ManagerID = r.EmpID ) SELECT FirstName + ' ' + LastName AS FullName, EmpLevel, (SELECT FirstName + ' ' + LastName FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID = cteReports.MgrID) AS Manager FROM cteReports ORDER BY EmpLevel, MgrID
Thus CTEs can be a useful tool when you need to generate temporary result sets that can be accessed in a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or MERGE statement.
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- MySQL | Recursive CTE (Common Table Expressions)
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- SQL | Procedures in PL/SQL
- SQL | Difference between functions and stored procedures in PL/SQL
- Difference between T-SQL and PL-SQL
- Difference between SQL and T-SQL
- Mitigation of SQL Injection Attack using Prepared Statements (Parameterized Queries)
- SQL | SELECT Query
- SQL | Distinct Clause
- SQL | WHERE Clause
- SQL | AND and OR operators
- SQL | INSERT INTO Statement
- SQL | DELETE Statement
- SQL | UPDATE Statement
- SQL | SELECT TOP Clause
- SQL | ORDER BY
- SQL | Aliases
- SQL | Wildcard operators
- SQL | Join (Inner, Left, Right and Full Joins)
- SQL | Union Clause
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