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CSS Selectors Complete Reference

Last Updated : 07 Jun, 2023
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CSS selectors are used to select HTML elements based on their element name, id, class, attribute, and many more. 

 

Example: Below the HTML/CSS code shows the functionality of ::after selector.

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<head>
    <style>
        p::after {
            content: " - Remember this";
            background-color: blue;
        }
    </style>
</head>
  
<body>
    <h3>After Selector</h3>
    <p>User ID: @dmor1</p>
    <p>Name: GFG</p>
</body>
  
</html>


Output:

 

The complete reference of CSS selectors is listed below:

CSS Selectors

Description

Example

[attribute*=value] Select those elements whose attribute value contains the specified substring str.
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[attribute=value] Select those elements whose attribute value is equal to “value”.
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[attribute$=value] Select those elements whose attribute value ends with a specified value “value”. 
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[attribute|=value] Select those elements whose attribute value is equal to “value”. 
Whose attribute value started with “value” immediately followed by hyphen (-).
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[attribute~=value] Select those elements whose attribute value contains a specified word. 
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[attribute^=value] Select those elements whose attribute value begins with the given attribute.
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#id Set the style of the given id. The id attribute is the unique identifier in an HTML document.
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* Select all the elements in an HTML document.  
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active It is used in styling an active link on the web page. Style display when the user clicks on the link.
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after It is used to add the same content multiple times after the content of other elements. 
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before It is used to add the same content multiple times before the content of other elements
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checked Select all checked elements in the input tag and radio buttons.
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Class Select all elements which belong to a particular class attribute
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default Set a default element in a group of the same type of element in a form. 
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disabled This property is mostly used on the form elements. 
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element Select HTML elements that are required to be style
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element element Select elements inside the elements
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element, element It is used to style all comma-separated elements with the same style.
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element1~element2 It is used to match the occurrences of element2 followed by element1
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empty Select that element that does not contain any children (including the text node). 
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enabled Set the background color in the enabled element in a form
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first-child Select those elements which are the first-child elements.
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first-of-type It is used to target the first child of every element of its parent.
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first-letter Apply the style to the first letter of the first line of a block-level element.
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first-line Apply style to the first line of a block-level element.
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focus It is used to target the focused element.
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hover  Style elements when the mouse hovers over them
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indeterminate Select any form elements that are in an indeterminate state
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in-range  Select all elements that are given within a particular range value.
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invalid  Select every form element that does not validate according to the elements
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lang  Target the element which is based on language attributes for a specific value.
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last-child Target the last child element of its parent for styling.
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last-of-type Target the last child element of the same type as it’s the parent for styling.
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link Target the unvisited link for styling, not the links which are already visited.
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not  Style every element that is not specified by the selector
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nth-child() Match the elements based on their position in a group of siblings.
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nth-last-child() Match elements based on their position among the group of siblings, counting from the end. 
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nth-last-of-type() Style only those elements which are the nth number of child of the parent element.
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nth-of-type() Style only those elements which are the nth number of child of its parent element.
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optional Style the form input elements which are optional. 
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only-child Match every element that is the only child of its parent
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only-of-type Select only those elements have no siblings of the given type.
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out-of-range Select the elements that are lying outside the given range
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placeholder Design the placeholder text by changing the text color and it allows modification of the style of the text.
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read-only Select an element that is readable only
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read-write Select an element (such as an input text) that is editable by the user. 
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required Select the required element with the required attribute and set the CSS property.
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root Select all the elements of an HTML Documents
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selection Set the CSS property to the part of the document that is selected by the user.
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target The target selector is used to represent a unique element.
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valid Select the form elements with a given value that validates according to the elements.
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visited select the visited links.
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