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How to create mergable stack?
  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 02 Mar, 2021

Design a stack with the following operations.

a) push(Stack s, x): Adds an item x to stack s 
b) pop(Stack s): Removes the top item from stack s 
c) merge(Stack s1, Stack s2): Merge contents of s2 into s1.

Time Complexity of all above operations should be O(1). 
If we use array implementation of the stack, then merge is not possible to do in O(1) time as we have to do the following steps. 
a) Delete old arrays. 
b) Create a new array for s1 with a size equal to the size of the old array for s1 plus size of s2. 
c) Copy old contents of s1 and s2 to new array for s1 
The above operations take O(n) time.

We can use a linked list with two pointers, one pointer to the first node (also used as a top when elements are added and removed from the beginning). The other pointer is needed for the last node so that we can quickly link the linked list of s2 at the end of s1. Following are all operations. 
a) push(): Adds the new item at the beginning of linked list using the first pointer. 
b) pop(): Removes an item from the beginning using the first pointer. 
c) merge(): Links the first pointer second stack as next of the last pointer of the first list.
Can we do it if we are not allowed to use an extra pointer? 
We can do it with a circular linked list. The idea is to keep track of the last node in the linked list. The next of the last node indicates the top of the stack. 
a) push(): Adds the new item as next of the last node. 

 

b) pop(): Removes next of last node. 
c) merge(): Links the top (next of last) of the second list to the top (next of last) of the first list. And makes last of the second list as last of the whole list.
This article is contributed by Rahul Gupta. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above



The code for the above is given below:

C++




#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
class node {
public:
    int data;
    node* next;
};
 
class mystack {
public:
    node* head;
    node* tail;
 
    mystack()
    {
        head = NULL;
        tail = NULL;
    }
};
 
mystack* create()
{
    mystack* ms = new mystack(); // creating a new stack
    return ms;
}
 
void push(int data, mystack* ms)
{
    node* temp = new node();
    temp->data = data;
    temp->next = ms->head;
 
    // when pushing first element in the stack the tail
    // must be pointed by that first element
    if (ms->head == NULL)
        ms->tail = temp;
     
    ms->head = temp;
}
 
int pop(mystack* ms)
{
    if (ms->head == NULL) {
        cout << "stack underflow" << endl;
        return 0;
    }
    else {
        node* temp = ms->head;
        ms->head = ms->head->next;
        int popped = temp->data;
        delete temp;
        return popped;
    }
}
 
// making the next pointer of tail of
// one stack point to other stack
void merge(mystack* ms1, mystack* ms2)
{
if (ms1->head == NULL)
{
    ms1->head = ms2->head;
    ms1->tail = ms2->tail;
    return;
}
     
ms1->tail->next = ms2->head;
ms1->tail = ms2->tail;
}
 
void display(mystack* ms)
{
    node* temp = ms->head;
    while (temp != NULL) {
        cout << temp->data << " ";
        temp = temp->next;
    }
}
 
int main()
{
    mystack* ms1 = create();
    mystack* ms2 = create();
 
    push(6, ms1);
    push(5, ms1);
    push(4, ms1);
    push(9, ms2);
    push(8, ms2);
    push(7, ms2);
    merge(ms1, ms2);
    display(ms1);
}
 
// This code is contributed by jayshmi

Java




import java.io.*;
 
// The class Node contains the
// structure of our Node of
// the linked list
class Node
{
    Node next;
    Node prev;
    int data;
     
    // Create a node with the
    // given value
    Node(int value)
    {
        data = value;
        next = null;
        prev = null;
    }
}
 
class Stack{
     
private Node head;
private Node tail;
 
// Initialize stack class
// with its head and tail as null
Stack()
{
    head = null;
    tail = null;
}
 
public void push(int value)
{
    Node newNode = new Node(value);
    if(head == null)
    {
        head = newNode;
        head.next=null;
        head.prev = null;
        tail = newNode;
    }
    else
    {
        newNode.prev = tail;
        tail.next = newNode;
        tail = newNode;
    }
}
 
public void pop()
{
    if(head == null)
        System.out.println("stack underflow");
     
    if(head == tail)
    {
        head = null;
        tail = null;
    }
    else
    {
        Node n = tail;
        tail = tail.prev;
        n.prev = null;
        tail.next = null;
    }
}
 
public void merge(Stack s)
{
    head.prev = s.tail;
    s.tail.next = head;
    head = s.head;
    s.tail = null;
    s.head = null;
}
 
public void display()
{
    if(tail != null)
    {
        Node n = tail;
        while(n != null)
        {
            System.out.print(n.data + " ");
            n = n.prev;
        }
        System.out.println();
    }
    else
    {
        System.out.println("Stack Underflow");
    }
}
}
 
class GFG{
public static void main (String[] args)
{
    Stack ms1 = new Stack();
    Stack ms2 = new Stack();
     
    ms1.push(6);
    ms1.push(5);
    ms1.push(4);
    ms2.push(9);
    ms2.push(8);
    ms2.push(7);
     
    ms1.merge(ms2);
    ms1.display();
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Ayaan

Python3




# The Node class for Linked List
class Node():
    def __init__(self,data):
         
        self.next = None
        self.prev = None
        self.data = data
 
class Stack():
     
    # Initialize stack class with
    # its head and tail as None
    def __init__(self):
         
        self.head = None
        self.tail = None
 
    def push(self, data):
         
        new_node = Node(data)
         
        if (self.head == None):
            self.head = new_node
            self.head.next= None
            self.head.prev = None
            self.tail = new_node
 
        else:
            new_node.prev = self.tail
            self.tail.next = new_node
            self.tail = new_node
 
    def pop(self):
         
        if (self.head == None):
            print("Stack underflow")
 
        if (self.head == self.tail):
            self.head = None
            self.tail = None
 
        else:
            node = self.tail
            self.tail = self.tail.prev
            node.prev = None
            tail.next = None
 
    def merge(self, stack):
         
        self.head.prev = stack.tail
        stack.tail.next = self.head
        stack.tail = None
        stack.head = None
 
    def display(self):
         
        if (self.tail != None):
            n = self.tail
             
            while (n != None):
                print(n.data, end = " ")
                n = n.prev
 
            print()
 
        else:
            print("Stack Underflow")
 
# Driver code
ms1 = Stack()
ms2 = Stack()
 
ms1.push(6)
ms1.push(5)
ms1.push(4)
ms2.push(9)
ms2.push(8)
ms2.push(7)
 
ms1.merge(ms2)
ms1.display()
 
# This code is contributed by maheswaripiyush9

C#




using System;
// The class Node contains the
// structure of our Node of
// the linked list
public
 
    class Node {
    public
 
        Node next;
    public
 
        Node prev;
    public
 
        int data;
 
    // Create a node with the
    // given value
    public
 
        Node(int value)
    {
        data = value;
        next = null;
        prev = null;
    }
}
 
public
 
    class Stack {
 
    private Node head;
    private Node tail;
 
    // Initialize stack class
    // with its head and tail as null
    public Stack()
    {
        head = null;
        tail = null;
    }
 
    public void Push(int value)
    {
        Node newNode = new Node(value);
        if (head == null) {
            head = newNode;
            head.next = null;
            head.prev = null;
            tail = newNode;
        }
        else {
            newNode.prev = tail;
            tail.next = newNode;
            tail = newNode;
        }
    }
 
    public void Pop()
    {
        if (head == null)
            Console.WriteLine("stack underflow");
 
        if (head == tail) {
            head = null;
            tail = null;
        }
        else {
            Node n = tail;
            tail = tail.prev;
            n.prev = null;
            tail.next = null;
        }
    }
 
    public void merge(Stack s)
    {
        head.prev = s.tail;
        s.tail.next = head;
        head = s.head;
        s.tail = null;
        s.head = null;
    }
 
    public void display()
    {
        if (tail != null) {
            Node n = tail;
            while (n != null) {
                Console.Write(n.data + " ");
                n = n.prev;
            }
            Console.WriteLine();
        }
        else {
            Console.WriteLine("Stack Underflow");
        }
    }
}
 
public class GFG {
    public static void Main(String[] args)
    {
        Stack ms1 = new Stack();
        Stack ms2 = new Stack();
 
        ms1.Push(6);
        ms1.Push(5);
        ms1.Push(4);
        ms2.Push(9);
        ms2.Push(8);
        ms2.Push(7);
 
        ms1.merge(ms2);
        ms1.display();
    }
}
// This code contributed by aashish1995
Output: 
4 5 6 7 8 9

 

 

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