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C++ Program to Rotate the matrix right by K times

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  • Last Updated : 08 Jun, 2022

Given a matrix of size N*M, and a number K. We have to rotate the matrix K times to the right side. 
Examples: 
 

Input :  N = 3, M = 3, K = 2
         12 23 34
         45 56 67
         78 89 91 

Output : 23 34 12
         56 67 45
         89 91 78 


Input :  N = 2, M = 2, K = 2
         1 2
         3 4
         
Output : 1 2
         3 4

 

A simple yet effective approach is to consider each row of the matrix as an array and perform an array rotation. This can be done by copying the elements from K to end of array to starting of array using temporary array. And then the remaining elements from start to K-1 to end of the array.
Lets take an example: 
 

 

C++




// CPP program to rotate a matrix right by k times
#include <iostream>
 
// size of matrix
#define M 3
#define N 3
 
using namespace std;
 
// function to rotate matrix by k times
void rotateMatrix(int matrix[][M], int k) {
  // temporary array of size M
  int temp[M];
 
  // within the size of matrix
  k = k % M;
 
  for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
 
    // copy first M-k elements to temporary array
    for (int t = 0; t < M - k; t++)
      temp[t] = matrix[i][t];
 
    // copy the elements from k to end to starting
    for (int j = M - k; j < M; j++)
      matrix[i][j - M + k] = matrix[i][j];
 
    // copy elements from temporary array to end
    for (int j = k; j < M; j++)
      matrix[i][j] = temp[j - k];
  }
}
 
// function to display the matrix
void displayMatrix(int matrix[][M]) {
  for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
    for (int j = 0; j < M; j++)
      cout << matrix[i][j] << " ";
    cout << endl;
  }
}
 
// Driver's code
int main() {
  int matrix[N][M] = {{12, 23, 34},
                     {45, 56, 67},
                     {78, 89, 91}};
  int k = 2;
 
  // rotate matrix by k
  rotateMatrix(matrix, k);
 
  // display rotated matrix
  displayMatrix(matrix);
 
  return 0;
}

Output: 

23 34 12 
56 67 45 
89 91 78

 

Time Complexity: O(N*M) 
Auxiliary Space: O(M)

Please refer complete article on Rotate the matrix right by K times for more details!


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