Given a positive integer n, count numbers x such that 0 < x <n and x^n > n where ^ is bitwise XOR operation.

Examples:

Input : n = 12 Output : 3 Numbers are 1, 2 and 3 1^12 > 12, 2^12 > 12 and 3^12 > 12 Input : n = 11 Output : 4 Numbers are 4, 5, 6 and 7

A number may x produce a greater XOR value if x has a set bit at a position where n has a 0 bit. So we traverse bits of n, and one by one consider all 0 bits. For every set bit at position k (Considering k = 0 for rightmost bit, k = 1 for second rightmost bit, ..), we add 2 2^{k} to result. For a bit at k-th position, there are 2^{k} numbers with set bit 1.

Below is the implementation of the above idea.

## C++

`// C++ program to count numbers whose XOR with n` `// produces a value more than n.` `#include<bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `int` `countNumbers(` `int` `n)` `{` ` ` `/* If there is a number like m = 11110000,` ` ` `then it is bigger then 1110xxxx. x can either` ` ` `0 or 1. So we have pow(2, k) greater numbers` ` ` `where k is position of rightmost 1 in m. Now` ` ` `by using XOR bit at each position can be changed.` ` ` `To change bit at any position, it needs to XOR` ` ` `it with 1. */` ` ` `int` `k = 0; ` `// Position of current bit in n` ` ` `/* Traverse bits from LSB (least significant bit)` ` ` `to MSB */` ` ` `int` `count = 0; ` `// Initialize result` ` ` `while` `(n > 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// If current bit is 0, then there are` ` ` `// 2^k numbers with current bit 1 and` ` ` `// whose XOR with n produces greater value` ` ` `if` `((n&1) == 0)` ` ` `count += ` `pow` `(2, k);` ` ` `// Increase position for next bit` ` ` `k += 1;` ` ` `// Reduce n to find next bit` ` ` `n >>= 1;` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `count;` `}` `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `int` `n = 11;` ` ` `cout << countNumbers(n) << endl;` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

## Java

`// Java program to count numbers` `// whose XOR with n produces a` `// value more than n.` `import` `java.lang.*;` `class` `GFG {` ` ` `static` `int` `countNumbers(` `int` `n)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// If there is a number like` ` ` `// m = 11110000, then it is` ` ` `// bigger than 1110xxxx. x` ` ` `// can either be 0 or 1. So` ` ` `// where k is the position of` ` ` `// rightmost 1 in m. Now by` ` ` `// using the XOR bit at each` ` ` `// position can be changed.` ` ` `// To change the bit at any` ` ` `// position, it needs to` ` ` `// XOR it with 1.` ` ` `int` `k = ` `0` `;` ` ` `// Position of current bit in n` ` ` `// Traverse bits from LSB (least` ` ` `// significant bit) to MSB` ` ` `int` `count = ` `0` `;` ` ` `// Initialize result` ` ` `while` `(n > ` `0` `) {` ` ` `// If the current bit is 0, then` ` ` `// there are 2^k numbers with` ` ` `// current bit 1 and whose XOR` ` ` `// with n produces greater value` ` ` `if` `((n & ` `1` `) == ` `0` `)` ` ` `count += (` `int` `)(Math.pow(` `2` `, k));` ` ` `// Increase position for next bit` ` ` `k += ` `1` `;` ` ` `// Reduce n to find next bit` ` ` `n >>= ` `1` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `count;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` ` ` `{` ` ` `int` `n = ` `11` `;` ` ` `System.out.println(countNumbers(n));` ` ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by Smitha.` |

## Python3

`# Python program to count numbers whose` `# XOR with n produces a value more than n.` `def` `countNumbers(n):` ` ` `''' If there is a number like m = 11110000,` ` ` `then it is bigger then 1110xxxx. x can either` ` ` `0 or 1. So we have pow(2, k) greater numbers` ` ` `where k is position of rightmost 1 in m. Now` ` ` `by using XOR bit at each position can be changed.` ` ` `To change bit at any position, it needs to XOR` ` ` `it with 1. '''` ` ` ` ` `# Position of current bit in n` ` ` `k ` `=` `0` ` ` `# Traverse bits from` ` ` `# LSB to MSB` ` ` `count ` `=` `0` `# Initialize result` ` ` `while` `(n > ` `0` `):` ` ` ` ` `# If current bit is 0, then there are` ` ` `# 2^k numbers with current bit 1 and` ` ` `# whose XOR with n produces greater value` ` ` `if` `((n & ` `1` `) ` `=` `=` `0` `):` ` ` `count ` `+` `=` `pow` `(` `2` `, k)` ` ` `# Increase position for next bit` ` ` `k ` `+` `=` `1` ` ` `# Reduce n to find next bit` ` ` `n >>` `=` `1` ` ` `return` `count` `# Driver code` `n ` `=` `11` `print` `(countNumbers(n))` `# This code is contributed by Anant Agarwal.` |

## C#

`// C# program to count numbers` `// whose XOR with n produces a` `// value more than n.` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG {` ` ` `static` `int` `countNumbers(` `int` `n)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// If there is a number like` ` ` `// m = 11110000, then it is` ` ` `// bigger than 1110xxxx. x` ` ` `// can either be 0 or 1. So` ` ` `// where k is the position of` ` ` `// rightmost 1 in m. Now by` ` ` `// using the XOR bit at each` ` ` `// position can be changed.` ` ` `// To change the bit at any` ` ` `// position, it needs to` ` ` `// XOR it with 1.` ` ` `int` `k = 0;` ` ` `// Position of current bit in n` ` ` `// Traverse bits from LSB (least` ` ` `// significant bit) to MSB` ` ` `int` `count = 0;` ` ` `// Initialize result` ` ` `while` `(n > 0) {` ` ` `// If the current bit is 0, then` ` ` `// there are 2^k numbers with` ` ` `// current bit 1 and whose XOR` ` ` `// with n produces greater value` ` ` `if` `((n & 1) == 0)` ` ` `count += (` `int` `)(Math.Pow(2, k));` ` ` `// Increase position for next bit` ` ` `k += 1;` ` ` `// Reduce n to find next bit` ` ` `n >>= 1;` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `count;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `Main()` ` ` `{` ` ` `int` `n = 11;` ` ` `Console.WriteLine(countNumbers(n));` ` ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by Anant Agarwal.` |

## PHP

`<?php` `// PHP program to count` `// numbers whose XOR with n` `// produces a value more than n.` `function` `countNumbers(` `$n` `)` `{` ` ` ` ` `/* If there is a number` ` ` `like m = 11110000,` ` ` `then it is bigger` ` ` `then 1110xxxx. x` ` ` `can either 0 or 1.` ` ` `So we have pow(2, k)` ` ` `greater numbers where` ` ` `k is position of` ` ` `rightmost 1 in m.` ` ` `Now by using XOR bit` ` ` `at each position can` ` ` `be changed. To change` ` ` `bit at any position,` ` ` `it needs to XOR it` ` ` `with 1. */` ` ` ` ` `// Position of current bit in n` ` ` `$k` `= 0;` ` ` ` ` `/* Traverse bits from LSB` ` ` `(least significant bit)` ` ` `to MSB */` ` ` ` ` `// Initialize result ` ` ` `$count` `= 0;` ` ` `while` `(` `$n` `> 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` ` ` `// If current bit is 0,` ` ` `// then there are 2^k` ` ` `// numbers with current` ` ` `// bit 1 and whose XOR` ` ` `// with n produces greater` ` ` `// value` ` ` `if` `((` `$n` `& 1) == 0)` ` ` `$count` `+= pow(2, ` `$k` `);` ` ` `// Increase position` ` ` `// for next bit` ` ` `$k` `+= 1;` ` ` `// Reduce n to` ` ` `// find next bit` ` ` `$n` `>>= 1;` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `$count` `;` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` ` ` `$n` `= 11;` ` ` `echo` `countNumbers(` `$n` `);` `// This code is contributed by anuj_67.` `?>` |

## Javascript

`<script>` `// Javascript program to count numbers whose XOR with n` `// produces a value more than n.` ` ` ` ` `function` `countNumbers(n)` ` ` `{` ` ` ` ` `// If there is a number like` ` ` `// m = 11110000, then it is` ` ` `// bigger than 1110xxxx. x` ` ` `// can either be 0 or 1. So` ` ` `// where k is the position of` ` ` `// rightmost 1 in m. Now by` ` ` `// using the XOR bit at each` ` ` `// position can be changed.` ` ` `// To change the bit at any` ` ` `// position, it needs to` ` ` `// XOR it with 1.` ` ` `let k = 0;` ` ` `// Position of current bit in n` ` ` ` ` `// Traverse bits from LSB (least` ` ` `// significant bit) to MSB` ` ` ` ` `let count = 0;` ` ` `// Initialize result` ` ` `while` `(n > 0) {` ` ` `// If the current bit is 0, then` ` ` `// there are 2^k numbers with` ` ` `// current bit 1 and whose XOR` ` ` `// with n produces greater value` ` ` `if` `((n & 1) == 0)` ` ` `count += (Math.pow(2, k));` ` ` ` ` `// Increase position for next bit` ` ` `k += 1;` ` ` ` ` `// Reduce n to find next bit` ` ` `n >>= 1;` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `return` `count;` ` ` `}` `// Driver Code` ` ` ` ` `let n = 11;` ` ` `document.write(countNumbers(n));` ` ` `</script>` |

**Output: **

4

Time complexity : O(Log n)

This article is contributed by **Smarak Chopdar**. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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