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# Count all possible groups of size 2 or 3 that have sum as multiple of 3

• Difficulty Level : Medium
• Last Updated : 13 Apr, 2021

Given an unsorted integer (positive values only) array of size ‘n’, we can form a group of two or three, the group should be such that the sum of all elements in that group is a multiple of 3. Count all possible number of groups that can be generated in this way.
Examples:

```Input: arr[] = {3, 6, 7, 2, 9}
Output: 8
// Groups are {3,6}, {3,9}, {9,6}, {7,2}, {3,6,9},
//            {3,7,2}, {7,2,6}, {7,2,9}

Input: arr[] = {2, 1, 3, 4}
Output: 4
// Groups are {2,1}, {2,4}, {2,1,3}, {2,4,3}```

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The idea is to see remainder of every element when divided by 3. A set of elements can form a group only if sun of their remainders is multiple of 3.
For example : 8, 4, 12. Now, the remainders are 2, 1, and 0 respectively. This means 8 is 2 distance away from 3s multiple (6), 4 is 1 distance away from 3s multiple(3), and 12 is 0 distance away. So, we can write the sum as 8 (can be written as 6+2), 4 (can be written as 3+1), and 12 (can be written as 12+0). Now the sum of 8, 4 and 12 can be written as 6+2+3+1+12+0. Now, 6+3+12 will always be divisible by 3 as all the terms are multiple of three. Now, we only need to check if 2+1+0 (remainders) is divisible by 3 or not which makes the complete sum divisible by 3.
Since the task is to enumerate groups, we count all elements with different remainders.

```1. Hash all elements in a count array based on remainder, i.e,
for all elements a[i], do c[a[i]%3]++;
2. Now c contains the number of elements which when divided
by 3 leave remainder 0 and similarly c for remainder 1
and c for 2.
3. Now for group of 2, we have 2 possibilities
a. 2 elements of remainder 0 group. Such possibilities are
c*(c-1)/2
b. 1 element of remainder 1 and 1 from remainder 2 group
Such groups are c*c.
4. Now for group of 3,we have 4 possibilities
a. 3 elements from remainder group 0.
No. of such groups are cC3
b. 3 elements from remainder group 1.
No. of such groups are cC3
c. 3 elements from remainder group 2.
No. of such groups are cC3
d. 1 element from each of 3 groups.
No. of such groups are c*c*c.
5. Add all the groups in steps 3 and 4 to obtain the result.```

## C++

 `// C++ Program to count all possible``// groups of size 2 or 3 that have``// sum as multiple of 3` `#include``using` `namespace` `std;` `// Returns count of all possible groups``// that can be formed from elements of a[].``int` `findgroups(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)``{``    ``// Create an array C to store counts``    ``// of elements with remainder 0, 1 and 2.``    ``// c[i] would store count of elements``    ``// with remainder i``    ``int` `c = {0}, i;` `    ``int` `res = 0; ``// To store the result` `    ``// Count elements with remainder 0, 1 and 2``    ``for` `(i=0; i>1);` `    ``// Case 3.b: Count groups of size 2 with``    ``// one element with 1 remainder and other``    ``// with 2 remainder``    ``res += c * c;` `    ``// Case 4.a: Count groups of size 3``    ``// with all 0 remainder elements``    ``res += (c * (c-1) * (c-2))/6;` `    ``// Case 4.b: Count groups of size 3``    ``// with all 1 remainder elements``    ``res += (c * (c-1) * (c-2))/6;` `    ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``    ``// with all 2 remainder elements``    ``res += ((c*(c-1)*(c-2))/6);` `    ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``    ``// with different remainders``    ``res += c*c*c;` `    ``// Return total count stored in res``    ``return` `res;``}` `// Driver Code``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `arr[] = {3, 6, 7, 2, 9};``    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr)/``sizeof``(arr);``    ``cout << ``"Required number of groups are "``         ``<< findgroups(arr,n) << endl;``    ``return` `0;``}` `// This code is contributed``// by Akanksha Rai`

## C

 `// C Program to count all possible``// groups of size 2 or 3 that have``// sum as multiple of 3` `#include` `// Returns count of all possible groups that can be formed from elements``// of a[].``int` `findgroups(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)``{``    ``// Create an array C to store counts of elements with remainder``    ``// 0, 1 and 2.  c[i] would store count of elements with remainder i``    ``int` `c = {0}, i;` `    ``int` `res = 0; ``// To store the result` `    ``// Count elements with remainder 0, 1 and 2``    ``for` `(i=0; i>1);` `    ``// Case 3.b: Count groups of size 2 with one element with 1``    ``// remainder and other with 2 remainder``    ``res += c * c;` `    ``// Case 4.a: Count groups of size 3 with all 0 remainder elements``    ``res += (c * (c-1) * (c-2))/6;` `    ``// Case 4.b: Count groups of size 3 with all 1 remainder elements``    ``res += (c * (c-1) * (c-2))/6;` `    ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3 with all 2 remainder elements``    ``res += ((c*(c-1)*(c-2))/6);` `    ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3 with different remainders``    ``res += c*c*c;` `    ``// Return total count stored in res``    ``return` `res;``}` `// Driver program to test above functions``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `arr[] = {3, 6, 7, 2, 9};``    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr)/``sizeof``(arr);``    ``printf``(``"Required number of groups are %d\n"``, findgroups(arr,n));``    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java Program to count all possible``// groups of size 2 or 3 that have``// sum as multiple of 3``class` `FindGroups``{``    ``// Returns count of all possible groups that can be formed from elements``    ``// of a[].` `    ``int` `findgroups(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ``// Create an array C to store counts of elements with remainder``        ``// 0, 1 and 2.  c[i] would store count of elements with remainder i``        ``int` `c[] = ``new` `int``[]{``0``, ``0``, ``0``};``        ``int` `i;` `        ``int` `res = ``0``; ``// To store the result` `        ``// Count elements with remainder 0, 1 and 2``        ``for` `(i = ``0``; i < n; i++)``            ``c[arr[i] % ``3``]++;` `        ``// Case 3.a: Count groups of size 2 from 0 remainder elements``        ``res += ((c[``0``] * (c[``0``] - ``1``)) >> ``1``);` `        ``// Case 3.b: Count groups of size 2 with one element with 1``        ``// remainder and other with 2 remainder``        ``res += c[``1``] * c[``2``];` `        ``// Case 4.a: Count groups of size 3 with all 0 remainder elements``        ``res += (c[``0``] * (c[``0``] - ``1``) * (c[``0``] - ``2``)) / ``6``;` `        ``// Case 4.b: Count groups of size 3 with all 1 remainder elements``        ``res += (c[``1``] * (c[``1``] - ``1``) * (c[``1``] - ``2``)) / ``6``;` `        ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3 with all 2 remainder elements``        ``res += ((c[``2``] * (c[``2``] - ``1``) * (c[``2``] - ``2``)) / ``6``);` `        ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3 with different remainders``        ``res += c[``0``] * c[``1``] * c[``2``];` `        ``// Return total count stored in res``        ``return` `res;``    ``}` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``FindGroups groups = ``new` `FindGroups();``        ``int` `arr[] = {``3``, ``6``, ``7``, ``2``, ``9``};``        ``int` `n = arr.length;``        ``System.out.println(``"Required number of groups are "``                ``+ groups.findgroups(arr, n));``    ``}``}`

## Python3

 `# Python3 Program to Count groups``# of size 2 or 3 that have sum``# as multiple of 3` `# Returns count of all possible``# groups that can be formed``# from elements of a[].``def` `findgroups(arr, n):` `    ``# Create an array C to store``    ``# counts of elements with``    ``# remainder 0, 1 and 2. c[i]``    ``# would store count of elements``    ``# with remainder i``    ``c ``=` `[``0``, ``0``, ``0``]` `    ``# To store the result``    ``res ``=` `0` `    ``# Count elements with remainder``    ``# 0, 1 and 2``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``, n):``        ``c[arr[i] ``%` `3``] ``+``=` `1` `    ``# Case 3.a: Count groups of size``    ``# 2 from 0 remainder elements``    ``res ``+``=` `((c[``0``] ``*` `(c[``0``] ``-` `1``)) >> ``1``)` `    ``# Case 3.b: Count groups of size``    ``# 2 with one element with 1``    ``# remainder and other with 2 remainder``    ``res ``+``=` `c[``1``] ``*` `c[``2``]` `    ``# Case 4.a: Count groups of size``    ``# 3 with all 0 remainder elements``    ``res ``+``=` `(c[``0``] ``*` `(c[``0``] ``-` `1``) ``*` `(c[``0``] ``-` `2``)) ``/` `6` `    ``# Case 4.b: Count groups of size 3``    ``# with all 1 remainder elements``    ``res ``+``=` `(c[``1``] ``*` `(c[``1``] ``-` `1``) ``*` `(c[``1``] ``-` `2``)) ``/` `6` `    ``# Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``    ``# with all 2 remainder elements``    ``res ``+``=` `((c[``2``] ``*` `(c[``2``] ``-` `1``) ``*` `(c[``2``] ``-` `2``)) ``/` `6``)` `    ``# Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``    ``# with different remainders``    ``res ``+``=` `c[``0``] ``*` `c[``1``] ``*` `c[``2``]` `    ``# Return total count stored in res``    ``return` `res` `# Driver program``arr ``=` `[``3``, ``6``, ``7``, ``2``, ``9``]``n ``=` `len``(arr)` `print` `(``"Required number of groups are"``,``               ``int``(findgroups(arr, n)))` `# This article is contributed by shreyanshi_arun`

## C#

 `// C# Program to count all possible``// groups of size 2 or 3 that have``// sum as multiple of 3``using` `System;` `class` `FindGroups``{``    ` `    ``// Returns count of all possible``    ``// groups that can be formed``    ``// from elements of a[].` `    ``int` `findgroups(``int` `[]arr, ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ` `        ``// Create an array C to store``        ``// counts of elements with remainder``        ``// 0, 1 and 2. c[i] would store``        ``// count of elements with remainder i``        ``int` `[] c= ``new` `int``[]{0, 0, 0};``        ``int` `i;` `        ``// To store the result``        ``int` `res = 0;` `        ``// Count elements with``        ``// remainder 0, 1 and 2``        ``for` `(i = 0; i < n; i++)``            ``c[arr[i] % 3]++;` `        ``// Case 3.a: Count groups of size``        ``// 2 from 0 remainder elements``        ``res += ((c * (c - 1)) >> 1);` `        ``// Case 3.b: Count groups of size 2``        ``// with one element with 1 remainder``        ``// and other with 2 remainder``        ``res += c * c;` `        ``// Case 4.a: Count groups of size 3``        ``// with all 0 remainder elements``        ``res += (c * (c - 1) *``               ``(c - 2)) / 6;` `        ``// Case 4.b: Count groups of size 3``        ``// with all 1 remainder elements``        ``res += (c * (c - 1) *``               ``(c - 2)) / 6;` `        ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``        ``// with all 2 remainder elements``        ``res += ((c * (c - 1) *``                ``(c - 2)) / 6);` `        ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``        ``// with different remainders``        ``res += c * c * c;` `        ``// Return total count stored in res``        ``return` `res;``    ``}` `    ``// Driver Code``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()``    ``{``        ``FindGroups groups = ``new` `FindGroups();``        ``int` `[]arr = {3, 6, 7, 2, 9};``        ``int` `n = arr.Length;``        ``Console.Write(``"Required number of groups are "``                       ``+ groups.findgroups(arr, n));``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.`

## PHP

 `> 1);` `    ``// Case 3.b: Count groups of size``    ``// 2 with one element with 1``    ``// remainder and other with 2 remainder``    ``\$res` `+= ``\$c`` * ``\$c``;` `    ``// Case 4.a: Count groups of size``    ``// 3 with all 0 remainder elements``    ``\$res` `+= (``\$c`` * (``\$c`` - 1) *``            ``(``\$c`` - 2)) / 6;` `    ``// Case 4.b: Count groups of size 3``    ``// with all 1 remainder elements``    ``\$res` `+= (``\$c`` * (``\$c`` - 1) *``            ``(``\$c`` - 2)) / 6;` `    ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``    ``// with all 2 remainder elements``    ``\$res` `+= ((``\$c`` * (``\$c`` - 1) *``             ``(``\$c`` - 2)) / 6);` `    ``// Case 4.c: Count groups of size 3``    ``// with different remainders``    ``\$res` `+= ``\$c`` * ``\$c`` * ``\$c``;` `    ``// Return total count stored in res``    ``return` `\$res``;``}` `// Driver Code``\$arr` `= ``array``(3, 6, 7, 2, 9);``\$n` `= ``count``(``\$arr``);` `echo` `"Required number of groups are "` `.``           ``(int)(findgroups(``\$arr``, ``\$n``));` `// This code is contributed by mits``?>`

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

`Required number of groups are 8`

Time Complexity: O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)