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Count number of binary strings without consecutive 1’s

  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 15 Apr, 2021

Given a positive integer N, count all possible distinct binary strings of length N such that there are no consecutive 1’s.

Examples: 

Input:  N = 2
Output: 3
// The 3 strings are 00, 01, 10

Input: N = 3
Output: 5
// The 5 strings are 000, 001, 010, 100, 101

This problem can be solved using Dynamic Programming. Let a[i] be the number of binary strings of length i which do not contain any two consecutive 1’s and which end in 0. Similarly, let b[i] be the number of such strings which end in 1. We can append either 0 or 1 to a string ending in 0, but we can only append 0 to a string ending in 1. This yields the recurrence relation: 

a[i] = a[i - 1] + b[i - 1]
b[i] = a[i - 1] 

The base cases of above recurrence are a[1] = b[1] = 1. The total number of strings of length i is just a[i] + b[i].
Following is the implementation of above solution. In the following implementation, indexes start from 0. So a[i] represents the number of binary strings for input length i+1. Similarly, b[i] represents binary strings for input length i+1.

C++




// C++ program to count all distinct binary strings
// without two consecutive 1's
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int countStrings(int n)
{
    int a[n], b[n];
    a[0] = b[0] = 1;
    for (int i = 1; i < n; i++)
    {
        a[i] = a[i-1] + b[i-1];
        b[i] = a[i-1];
    }
    return a[n-1] + b[n-1];
}
 
 
// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    cout << countStrings(3) << endl;
    return 0;
}

Java




class Subset_sum
{
    static  int countStrings(int n)
    {
        int a[] = new int [n];
        int b[] = new int [n];
        a[0] = b[0] = 1;
        for (int i = 1; i < n; i++)
        {
            a[i] = a[i-1] + b[i-1];
            b[i] = a[i-1];
        }
        return a[n-1] + b[n-1];
    }
    /* Driver program to test above function */
    public static void main (String args[])
    {
          System.out.println(countStrings(3));
    }
}/* This code is contributed by Rajat Mishra */

Python3




# Python program to count
# all distinct binary strings
# without two consecutive 1's
 
def countStrings(n):
 
    a=[0 for i in range(n)]
    b=[0 for i in range(n)]
    a[0] = b[0] = 1
    for i in range(1,n):
        a[i] = a[i-1] + b[i-1]
        b[i] = a[i-1]
     
    return a[n-1] + b[n-1]
 
# Driver program to test
# above functions
 
print(countStrings(3))
 
# This code is contributed
# by Anant Agarwal.

C#




// C# program to count all distinct binary
// strings without two consecutive 1's
using System;
 
class Subset_sum
{
    static int countStrings(int n)
    {
        int []a = new int [n];
        int []b = new int [n];
        a[0] = b[0] = 1;
        for (int i = 1; i < n; i++)
        {
            a[i] = a[i-1] + b[i-1];
            b[i] = a[i-1];
        }
        return a[n-1] + b[n-1];
    }
     
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main ()
    {
        Console.Write(countStrings(3));
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by nitin mittal

PHP




<?php
// PHP program to count all distinct
// binary stringswithout two
// consecutive 1's
 
function countStrings($n)
{
    $a[$n] = 0;
    $b[$n] = 0;
    $a[0] = $b[0] = 1;
    for ($i = 1; $i < $n; $i++)
    {
        $a[$i] = $a[$i - 1] +
                 $b[$i - 1];
        $b[$i] = $a[$i - 1];
    }
    return $a[$n - 1] +
           $b[$n - 1];
}
 
    // Driver Code
    echo countStrings(3) ;
 
// This code is contributed by nitin mittal
?>

Javascript




<script>
 
// JavaScript program to count all
// distinct binary strings
// without two consecutive 1's
function countStrings(n)
{
    let a = [];
    let b = [];
    a[0] = b[0] = 1;
     
    for(let i = 1; i < n; i++)
    {
        a[i] = a[i - 1] + b[i - 1];
        b[i] = a[i - 1];
    }
    return a[n - 1] + b[n - 1];
}
 
// Driver code
document.write(countStrings(3));
 
// This code is contributed by rohan07
 
</script>

Output: 



5

Source: 
courses.csail.mit.edu/6.006/oldquizzes/solutions/q2-f2009-sol.pdf
If we take a closer look at the pattern, we can observe that the count is actually (n+2)’th Fibonacci number for n >= 1. The Fibonacci Numbers are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 141, …. 

n = 1, count = 2  = fib(3)
n = 2, count = 3  = fib(4)
n = 3, count = 5  = fib(5)
n = 4, count = 8  = fib(6)
n = 5, count = 13 = fib(7)
................

Therefore we can count the strings in O(Log n) time also using the method 5 here.

Related Post : 
1 to n bit numbers with no consecutive 1s in binary representation.
This article is contributed by Rahul Jain. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above
 

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