Given an unsorted array of n integers which can contain integers from 1 to n. Some elements can be repeated multiple times and some other elements can be absent from the array. Count frequency of all elements that are present and print the missing elements.

**Examples:**

Input: arr[] = {2, 3, 3, 2, 5} Output: Below are frequencies of all elements 1 -> 0 2 -> 2 3 -> 2 4 -> 0 5 -> 1 Input: arr[] = {4, 4, 4, 4} Output: Below are frequencies of all elements 1 -> 0 2 -> 0 3 -> 0 4 -> 4

A **Simple Solution** is to create a count array of size n as the elements are in range from 1 to n. This solution works in O(n) time, but requires O(n) extra space.

**How to do it in O(1) extra space and O(n) time?**

Below are two methods to solve this in O(n) time and O(1) extra space. Both method modify given array to achieve O(1) extra space.

**Method 1 (By making elements negative)**

The idea is to traverse the given array, use elements as index and store their counts at the index. For example, when we see element 7, we go to index 6 and store the count. There are few problems to handle, one is the counts can get mixed with the elements, this is handled by storing the counts as negative. Other problem is loosing the element which is replaced by count, this is handled by first storing the element to be replaced at current index.

Algorithm:1) Initialize i as 0 2) Do following while i < n // If this element is already processed, // then nothing to do a) If arr[i] <= 0 i++; continue the loop from beginning // Find index corresponding to this element // For example, index for 5 is 4 b) elementIndex = arr[i]-1; // If the elementIndex has an element that is not // processed yet, then first store that element // to arr[i] so that we don't loose anything. c) if (arr[elementIndex] > 0) (i) arr[i] = arr[elementIndex]; // After storing arr[elementIndex], change it // to store initial count of 'arr[i]' (ii) arr[elementIndex] = -1; d) else // If this is NOT first occurrence of arr[i], // then increment its count. (i) arr[elementIndex]--; // And initialize arr[i] as 0 means the element // 'i+1' is not seen so far (ii) arr[i] = 0; (iii) i++; 3) Now -arr[i] stores count of i+1.

Below is the implementation of the above approach.

## C

// C++ program to print frequencies of all array // elements in O(1) extra space and O(n) time #include<bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; // Function to find counts of all elements present in // arr[0..n-1]. The array elements must be range from // 1 to n void findCounts(int *arr, int n) { // Traverse all array elements int i = 0; while (i<n) { // If this element is already processed, // then nothing to do if (arr[i] <= 0) { i++; continue; } // Find index corresponding to this element // For example, index for 5 is 4 int elementIndex = arr[i]-1; // If the elementIndex has an element that is not // processed yet, then first store that element // to arr[i] so that we don't loose anything. if (arr[elementIndex] > 0) { arr[i] = arr[elementIndex]; // After storing arr[elementIndex], change it // to store initial count of 'arr[i]' arr[elementIndex] = -1; } else { // If this is NOT first occurrence of arr[i], // then increment its count. arr[elementIndex]--; // And initialize arr[i] as 0 means the element // 'i+1' is not seen so far arr[i] = 0; i++; } } printf("nBelow are counts of all elementsn"); for (int i=0; i<n; i++) printf("%d -> %dn", i+1, abs(arr[i])); } // Driver program to test above function int main() { int arr[] = {2, 3, 3, 2, 5}; findCounts(arr, sizeof(arr)/ sizeof(arr[0])); int arr1[] = {1}; findCounts(arr1, sizeof(arr1)/ sizeof(arr1[0])); int arr3[] = {4, 4, 4, 4}; findCounts(arr3, sizeof(arr3)/ sizeof(arr3[0])); int arr2[] = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 1}; findCounts(arr2, sizeof(arr2)/ sizeof(arr2[0])); int arr4[] = {3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3}; findCounts(arr4, sizeof(arr4)/ sizeof(arr4[0])); int arr5[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}; findCounts(arr5, sizeof(arr5)/ sizeof(arr5[0])); int arr6[] = {11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1}; findCounts(arr6, sizeof(arr6)/ sizeof(arr6[0])); return 0; }

## Java

// Java program to print frequencies of all array // elements in O(1) extra space and O(n) time class CountFrequencies { // Function to find counts of all elements present in // arr[0..n-1]. The array elements must be range from // 1 to n void findCounts(int arr[], int n) { // Traverse all array elements int i = 0; while (i < n) { // If this element is already processed, // then nothing to do if (arr[i] <= 0) { i++; continue; } // Find index corresponding to this element // For example, index for 5 is 4 int elementIndex = arr[i] - 1; // If the elementIndex has an element that is not // processed yet, then first store that element // to arr[i] so that we don't loose anything. if (arr[elementIndex] > 0) { arr[i] = arr[elementIndex]; // After storing arr[elementIndex], change it // to store initial count of 'arr[i]' arr[elementIndex] = -1; } else { // If this is NOT first occurrence of arr[i], // then increment its count. arr[elementIndex]--; // And initialize arr[i] as 0 means the element // 'i+1' is not seen so far arr[i] = 0; i++; } } System.out.println("Below are counts of all elements"); for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) System.out.println(j+1 + "->" + Math.abs(arr[j])); } // Driver program to test above functions public static void main(String[] args) { CountFrequencies count = new CountFrequencies(); int arr[] = {2, 3, 3, 2, 5}; count.findCounts(arr, arr.length); int arr1[] = {1}; count.findCounts(arr1, arr1.length); int arr3[] = {4, 4, 4, 4}; count.findCounts(arr3, arr3.length); int arr2[] = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 1}; count.findCounts(arr2, arr2.length); int arr4[] = {3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3}; count.findCounts(arr4, arr4.length); int arr5[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}; count.findCounts(arr5, arr5.length); int arr6[] = {11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1}; count.findCounts(arr6, arr6.length); } } // This code has been contributed by Mayank Jaiswal(mayank_24)

## Python3

# Python3 program to print frequencies of all array # elements in O(1) extra space and O(n) time # Function to find counts of all elements present in # arr[0..n-1]. The array elements must be range from # 1 to n def findCounts(arr, n): # Traverse all array elements i = 0 while i<n: # If this element is already processed, # then nothing to do if arr[i] <= 0: i += 1 continue # Find index corresponding to this element # For example, index for 5 is 4 elementIndex = arr[i] - 1 # If the elementIndex has an element that is not # processed yet, then first store that element # to arr[i] so that we don't loose anything. if arr[elementIndex] > 0: arr[i] = arr[elementIndex] # After storing arr[elementIndex], change it # to store initial count of 'arr[i]' arr[elementIndex] = -1 else: # If this is NOT first occurrence of arr[i], # then increment its count. arr[elementIndex] -= 1 # And initialize arr[i] as 0 means the element # 'i+1' is not seen so far arr[i] = 0 i += 1 print ("Below are counts of all elements") for i in range(0,n): print ("%d -> %d"%(i+1, abs(arr[i]))) print ("") # Driver program to test above function arr = [2, 3, 3, 2, 5] findCounts(arr, len(arr)) arr1 = [1] findCounts(arr1, len(arr1)) arr3 = [4, 4, 4, 4] findCounts(arr3, len(arr3)) arr2 = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 1] findCounts(arr2, len(arr2)) arr4 = [3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3] findCounts(arr4, len(arr4)) arr5 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11] findCounts(arr5, len(arr5)) arr6 = [11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1] findCounts(arr6, len(arr6)) # This code is contributed # by shreyanshi_19

Output:

Below are counts of all elements 1 -> 0 2 -> 2 3 -> 2 4 -> 0 5 -> 1 Below are counts of all elements 1 -> 1 Below are counts of all elements 1 -> 0 2 -> 0 3 -> 0 4 -> 4 Below are counts of all elements 1 -> 3 2 -> 0 3 -> 2 4 -> 0 5 -> 2 6 -> 0 7 -> 2 8 -> 0 9 -> 2 10 -> 0 11 -> 0 Below are counts of all elements 1 -> 0 2 -> 0 3 -> 11 4 -> 0 5 -> 0 6 -> 0 7 -> 0 8 -> 0 9 -> 0 10 -> 0 11 -> 0 Below are counts of all elements 1 -> 1 2 -> 1 3 -> 1 4 -> 1 5 -> 1 6 -> 1 7 -> 1 8 -> 1 9 -> 1 10 -> 1 11 -> 1 Below are counts of all elements 1 -> 1 2 -> 1 3 -> 1 4 -> 1 5 -> 1 6 -> 1 7 -> 1 8 -> 1 9 -> 1 10 -> 1 11 -> 1

**How does above program work?**

Let us take below example to see step by step processing of

above program:

arr[] = {2, 3, 3, 2, 5}

**i = 0, arr[i] = 2, arr[] = {2, 3, 3, 2, 5}**

Since arr[i] > 0, find elementIndex.

elementIndex = arr[i] – 1 = 2 – 1 = 1,

arr[elementIndex] or arr[1] is 3

Since arr[elementIndex] is postive,

arr[i] = arr[elementIndex] = 3

arr[elementIndex] = -1 // 2 is seen 1 times so far

i is not changed.

**i = 0, arr[i] = 3, arr[] = {3, -1, 3, 2, 5}**

Since arr[i] > 0, find elementIndex.

elementIndex = arr[i] – 1 = 3 – 1 = 2

arr[elementIndex] or arr[2] is 3

Since arr[elementIndex] is postive

arr[i] = arr[elementIndex] = 3

arr[elementIndex] = -1 // 3 is seen 1 times so far

i is not changed.

**i = 0, arr[i] = 3, arr[] = {3, -1, -1, 2, 5}**

Since arr[i] > 0, find elementIndex.

elementIndex = arr[i] – 1 = 3 – 1 = 2

arr[elementIndex] or arr[2] is -1

Since arr[elementIndex] is negative

arr[elementIndex] = arr[elementIndex] – 1

= -2 // 3 is seen 2 times so far

arr[i] = 0 // 1 is not seen so far

i is incremented

**i = 1, arr[i] = -1, arr[] = {0, -1, -2, 2, 5}**

Since arr[i] is negative, increment i

**i = 2, arr[i] = -2, arr[] = {0, -1, -2, 2, 5}**

Since arr[i] is negative, increment i

**i = 3, arr[i] = 2, arr[] = {0, -1, -2, 2, 5}**

Since arr[i] > 0, we find elementIndex.

elementIndex = arr[i] – 1 = 2 – 1 = 1

arr[elementIndex] or arr[1] is -1

Since arr[elementIndex] is negative

arr[elementIndex] = arr[elementIndex] – 1

= -2 // 2 is seen 2 times so far

arr[i] = 0 // 4 is not seen so far

i is incremented

**i = 4, arr[i] = 5, arr[] = {0, -2, -2, 0, 5}**

Since arr[i] > 0, we find elementIndex.

elementIndex = arr[i] – 1 = 5 – 1 = 4

arr[elementIndex] or arr[4] is 5

Since arr[elementIndex] is postive

arr[i] = arr[elementIndex] = 4

arr[elementIndex] = -1 // 5 is seen 1 times so far

i is not changed.

**i = 1, arr[i] = -1, arr[] = {0, -2, -2, 0, -1}**

Since arr[i] is negative, increment i

**Method 2 (By adding n to keep track of counts)**

1) Subtract 1 from every element so that the elements become in range from 0 to n-1 for (int j =0; j < n; j++) arr[j] = arr[j]-1; 2) Use every element arr[i] as index and add 'n' to element present at arr[i]%n to keep track of count of occurrences of arr[i] for (int i=0; i < n; i++) arr[arr[i]%n] = arr[arr[i]%n] + n; 3) To print counts, simply print the number of times n was added at index corresponding to every element for (int i =0; i < n; i++) print "(i + 1) -> arr[i] "

Below is the implementation of above idea.

## C++

// C++ program to print frequencies of all array // elements in O(1) extra space and O(n) time #include<bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; // Function to find counts of all elements present in // arr[0..n-1]. The array elements must be range from // 1 to n void printfrequency(int arr[],int n) { // Subtract 1 from every element so that the elements // become in range from 0 to n-1 for (int j =0; j<n; j++) arr[j] = arr[j]-1; // Use every element arr[i] as index and add 'n' to // element present at arr[i]%n to keep track of count of // occurrences of arr[i] for (int i=0; i<n; i++) arr[arr[i]%n] = arr[arr[i]%n] + n; // To print counts, simply print the number of times n // was added at index corresponding to every element for (int i =0; i<n; i++) cout << i + 1 << " -> " << arr[i]/n << endl; } // Driver program to test above function int main() { int arr[] = {2, 3, 3, 2, 5}; int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]); printfrequency(arr,n); return 0; }

## Java

class CountFrequency { // Function to find counts of all elements present in // arr[0..n-1]. The array elements must be range from // 1 to n void printfrequency(int arr[], int n) { // Subtract 1 from every element so that the elements // become in range from 0 to n-1 for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) arr[j] = arr[j] - 1; // Use every element arr[i] as index and add 'n' to // element present at arr[i]%n to keep track of count of // occurrences of arr[i] for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) arr[arr[i] % n] = arr[arr[i] % n] + n; // To print counts, simply print the number of times n // was added at index corresponding to every element for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) System.out.println(i + 1 + "->" + arr[i] / n); } // Driver program to test above functions public static void main(String[] args) { CountFrequency count = new CountFrequency(); int arr[] = {2, 3, 3, 2, 5}; int n = arr.length; count.printfrequency(arr, n); } } // This code has been contributed by Mayank Jaiswal

Output:

1 -> 0 2 -> 2 3 -> 2 4 -> 0 5 -> 1

Thanks to Vivek Kumar for suggesting this solution in a comment below.

This article is contributed by Shubham Gupta. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above