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Count distinct pair of indices in Array whose GCD and LCM are same

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  • Last Updated : 30 Dec, 2022
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Given an array A[] of length N, the task is to find the total number of distinct pairs (i, j) of indices where 1 ≤ i < j ≤ N such that the greatest common divisor(gcd) and least common multiple(lcm) of these elements are equal.

Examples:

Input: A[] = {2, 5, 5, 5, 6} 
Output:

Explanation: Here pair (i, j) are: (2, 3), (3, 4), and (2, 4). 
To elaborate, gcd(A2, A3) = lcm(A2, A3) = 5.

Input: A[] = {22, 22, 38, 38} 
Output: 2

Approach: The problem can be solved based on the following observation:

Observations:

  • The observation to be made here is as follows: gcd(Ai, Aj) = lcm(Ai, Aj)⟺ Ai = Aj
  • So, the problem reduces to simply counting the number of pairs of equal elements in A.
  • Build a frequency map of the elements of A (using map/unordered_map in C++, TreeMap/Hashmap in Java, or dict in python) and then iterate across its elements.
  • If an element x has a frequency of fx, then it contributes fx⋅(fx−1)/2 pairs to the answer, so sum this value across all x.

Follow the below steps to solve the problem:

  • Declare a hash map.
  • Start iterating over the entire array
    • If the element is present in the map, then increase the value of frequency by 1.
    • Otherwise, insert that element into the map.
  • After that start traversing the map and get the value(frequency of element).
  • If an element x has a frequency of fx, then it contributes fx⋅(fx − 1) / 2 pairs to the answer, so sum this value across all x.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++




// C++ code to implement the approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
long pairCount(int arr[], int size)
{
 
  // Function to find number of
  // distinct pair
  unordered_map<int, int> freqMap;
 
  for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
    freqMap[arr[i]]++;
  }
  long ans = 0;
 
  for (auto it : freqMap) {
    ans += (long)it.second * (long)(it.second - 1) / 2;
  }
  return ans;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
 
  // Function call
  int A[] = { 2, 5, 5, 5, 6 };
  int size = sizeof(A) / sizeof(A[0]);
  cout << pairCount(A, size);
}
 
// This code is contributed by aarohi2616.

Java




// Java code to implement the approach
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
public class GFG {
    // Function to find number of
    // distinct pair
    public static long pairCount(int a[], int n)
    {
        Map<Integer, Integer> mp = new HashMap<>();
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (mp.containsKey(a[i])) {
                mp.put(a[i], mp.get(a[i]) + 1);
            }
            else {
                mp.put(a[i], 1);
            }
        }
        long ans = 0;
        for (int i : mp.values()) {
            ans += (long)i * (long)(i - 1) / 2;
        }
        return ans;
    }
 
    // Driver code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int A[] = { 2, 5, 5, 5, 6 };
        int N = A.length;
 
        // Function call
        System.out.println(pairCount(A, N));
    }
}

C#




// C# code to implement the approach
 
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
public class GFG {
 
    // Function to find number of distinct pair
    public static long pairCount(int[] a, int n)
    {
        Dictionary<int, int> mp
            = new Dictionary<int, int>();
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (mp.ContainsKey(a[i])) {
                mp[a[i]] += 1;
            }
            else {
                mp.Add(a[i], 1);
            }
        }
        long ans = 0;
 
        Dictionary<int, int>.ValueCollection valueColl
            = mp.Values;
 
        foreach(int i in valueColl)
        {
            ans += (long)i * (long)(i - 1) / 2;
        }
        return ans;
    }
 
    static public void Main()
    {
 
        // Code
        int[] A = { 2, 5, 5, 5, 6 };
        int N = A.Length;
 
        // Function call
        Console.WriteLine(pairCount(A, N));
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by lokeshmvs21.

Python3




class GFG :
    # Function to find number of
    # distinct pair
    @staticmethod
    def  pairCount( a,  n) :
        mp =  dict()
        i = 0
        while (i < n) :
            if ((a[i] in mp.keys())) :
                mp[a[i]] = mp.get(a[i]) + 1
            else :
                mp[a[i]] = 1
            i += 1
        ans = 0
        for i in mp.values() :
            ans += int(i) * int((i - 1)) / 2
        return ans
       
    # Driver code
    @staticmethod
    def main( args) :
        A = [2, 5, 5, 5, 6]
        N = len(A)
         
        # Function call
        print(GFG.pairCount(A, N))
     
if __name__=="__main__":
    GFG.main([])
     
    # This code is contributed by aadityaburujwale.

Javascript




class GFG
{
    // Function to find number of
    // distinct pair
    static pairCount(a, n)
    {
        var mp = new Map();
        for (i; i < n; i++)
        {
            if (mp.has(a[i]))
            {
                mp.set(a[i],mp.get(a[i]) + 1);
            }
            else
            {
                mp.set(a[i],1);
            }
        }
        var ans = 0;
        for ( const  i of mp.values()) {
        ans += parseInt(i) * parseInt((i - 1)) / 2;
}
        return ans;
    }
    // Driver code
    static main(args)
    {
        var A = [2, 5, 5, 5, 6];
        var N = A.length;
        // Function call
        console.log(GFG.pairCount(A, N));
    }
}
GFG.main([]);
 
// This code is contributed by aadityaburujwale.

Output

3

Time Complexity: O(N) 
Auxiliary Space: O(N)


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