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Cotton Textile Industry in India

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  • Last Updated : 29 Nov, 2022
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The turning of cotton string and winding of cotton material is one of the most seasoned human occupations. The hand turning and winding of fabric by handlooms have been the most well-known and conventional occupations of individuals, especially in old social domains of the world. 

The real advancement of the modem cotton material industry began in the eighteenth century with the modern transformation in Great Britain. It got energy after the innovations of the Flying Shuttle (1733) by Kay, the Spinning Jenny (1764) by Hargreaves, the Spinning Mule (1776) by Crompton, the Power loom (1787) via Cartwright, and Steam Engine and Cotton Gin (1793) in Extraordinary Britain, From Great Britain, present-day innovation of turning and winding of cotton fabric reached to numerous nations of Europe and to the U.S.A., Japan, and India in the nineteenth country.

In the 20th century, this innovation was created in the previous USSR, China, Egypt, Turkey, Mexico, Brazil, etc. The cotton material industry is very broad on the planet and upwards of 90 nations are creating cotton yarn as well as material in fluctuating amounts. Be that as it may, the primary grouping of the material industry is restricted to not many nations. There are two kinds of creation related to cotton material, one is the development of cotton yarn and one more is the creation of cotton fabric. Albeit numerous nations produce both things.

Area of Cotton Textile Industry

Like different enterprises, the cotton material industry additionally expects to amplify benefits by limiting the creation cost. To decrease the absolute use or cost of creation and supply to business sectors, the business needs to figure out the smallest expense ‘area. In the determination of a reasonable area for a cotton material industry, the accessibility of talented work, market, and method for transport assumes a vital part.

  • Raw materials: Cotton is an unadulterated natural substance as the proportion of crude cotton and wrapped-up item. Cotton string and material are almost something very similar. It is tracked down that the weight reduction of crude cotton (without cotton seeds) it is immaterial to produce. For instance, almost one ton of cotton yarn is delivered by one ton of crude cotton, and one ton of yarn additionally creates around one ton of material. Along these lines, because of the unimportant weight reduction of unrefined substance in the assembling system, unrefined substance (crude cotton or cotton yarn) doesn’t apply a huge influence on the area of the cotton material industry. In that capacity, the cotton material industry might be laid out either at the wellspring of unrefined substance (cotton creating region), in the market, or in any transitional area between the wellspring of unrefined substance and market.
  • Market: The interest in apparel is constantly directed by design. Generally speaking, made material products are noteworthy in nature. Through time, the flavor of shoppers and the style of the general public will more often than not change especially. To stay up with the changing style and change in the flavor of the general public, material factories are set up in or close to the market. For instance, the early material factories in the United States were laid out in New England locale, close to the market which was thickly populated. In the previous USSR~ early material plants were moved to the Moscow area.
  • Climate: Moist mild environment is viewed as an ideal condition for the improvement of the cotton material industry. The greater part of the material enterprises was set up in gentle and muggy climatic areas in the nineteenth and twentieth hundreds of years. Models remember the New England area for the U.S.A., Great Britain in Europe, and Mumbai in India. 
  • Labor: The cotton material industry is essentially a work-escalated industry. Gifted and modest work is expected by the material business. Many works including the treatment of current machines rely generally upon the work prepared for the business. Modest work is by and large accessible in the thickly populated regions. The low pay of work has forever been a significant
    thought for the area of a cotton factory.
  • Power Resources: The stock of shows of dominance a significant job in the limitation of the cotton material industry. In the beginning stage of improvement, material ventures were situated close to the water source: waterways, lakes, oceans, and so forth. Later on, with the presentation of coal, it proceeded to assume a significant part in the assurance of modern areas. Presently the stock of power is drawing in the cotton plants in numerous regions of the world. 
  • Transport: Suitable method for transportation is expected for the assortment of unrefined components what’s more, dissemination of completed products: cotton yarn, and cotton fabric to the market. These things might be shipped by trucks (street transport), rail line carts, and ocean vessels. 
  • Capital: A lot of capital is fundamental for the foundation of any cotton factory. A cotton material industry running on a limited scale or family premise requires little capital however an enormous scope plant needs a colossal measure of fixed and portable.

Ongoing Trends in Localization

The cotton Textile industry is represented by the cycles of ginning, checking, turning; winding around, coloring and dying. Ginning is the method involved with isolating seeds from the cotton fiber which is acted in ginneries, generally arranged in the cotton-developing regions. Different exercises are performed by cotton factories. Various units play out these cycles independently and as it were some are incorporated that performs turning and winding around together. Consequently, there are four sorts of units related to the cotton material industry:

  • Spinning plants,
  • Weaving factories,
  • Bleaching, coloring, and printing factories, and
  • Lacing and sewing plants.

Since the sewed material includes more transportation cost than crude cotton, thusly such units are situated in or close to the market. The turning industry is a lot of variables that might be migrated effectively anyplace utilizing talented and modest work. Various turning plants have been migrated out of the metropolitan area of Mumbai to offices of modest land, work, low charges, and so forth. In the exceptionally evolved world (Western Europe, USA, and Japan), the creation of customary products is as of now not significant. These nations have long changed to the creation of valuable products as opposed to coarse material. The import of essential items from creating nations is a lot less expensive than to be delivered at home. Presently the computerization of factories and expanding wages of work have made the material business capital concentrated instead of labour-intensive.

After 1950, various non-industrial nations have arisen as significant makers of cotton things, like India, Vietnam, China, Brazil, Turkey, Indonesia, Pakistan, Mexico, South Korea, Bangladesh,, Myanmar, Egypt, etc. As of late cotton, the material industry needs to confront extremely high rivalry with units creating engineered filaments and textures in an enormous amount. Numerous material factories are supplanting cotton winding-around machines to incorporate new machines for the development of engineered fabric.

Cotton Textile Industry in India

Cotton is the most widely used natural fiber in the world and it has been cultivated for centuries. India is one of the leading producers and exporters of cotton and cotton textiles. The Indian cotton textile industry is an important part of the country’s economy, contributing around 15% to industrial production and 4% to the GDP. The industry employs over 35 million people, making it one of the largest employment generators in the country. The sector is well-developed with a large number of spinning, weaving, knitting, fabric processing, and garment manufacturing units. It is estimated that there are around 5,000 cotton mills in India.

The Indian government provides a number of subsidies and incentives to promote the growth of the sector. These include interest subsidies, investment subsidies, the technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS), export incentives under Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme, etc. The government has also set up special economic zones (SEZs) for textile industries which provide them with a number of benefits such as tax holidays, duty-free imports/exports, etc. Despite all these measures, the sector faces a number of challenges such as high input costs (cotton & yarn), power costs, water shortages, and competition from cheaper synthetic fibers and fabrics imported from China. The industry has been demanding a level playing field in order to compete effectively in the global market.

Types of Cotton Textiles

There are various types of cotton textiles that are produced in India. These include:

  • Khadi: Khadi is a hand-woven fabric made from cotton that is typically used for clothing. It is also sometimes referred to as “homespun cloth”.
  • Calico: Calico is a plain-weave cotton fabric that is often printed with patterns. It is commonly used for making garments, bedding, and other household items.
  • Muslin: Muslin is a finely-woven cotton fabric that can be either plain or patterned. It is often used for making dresses, shirts, and other garments.
  • Denim: Denim is a sturdy cotton twill fabric that is typically blue in color. It is most commonly used for making jeans, but can also be used for other garments such as shirts and jackets.
  • Chambray: Chambray is a lightweight cotton fabric with a plain weave that can be either solid-colored or patterned. It is often used for making shirts, dresses, and other garments.

History of Cotton Textile Industry in India

The cotton textile industry in India has a long and storied history. It is one of the few industries that can be traced back to the very beginnings of human civilization. The first cotton textiles were probably made in the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in what is now Pakistan and northwest India between about 3000 and 1500 BCE. Cotton was known in India long before it was known in the West. In fact, the word “cotton” comes from the Arabic word quote, which was derived from the Sanskrit word karpasa. The Indian climate is particularly suited to grow cotton, and the craft of spinning and weaving cotton cloth was well-established by the time the first European traders arrived in India in the early 16th century.

The British East India Company began importing large quantities of Indian cotton textiles in the 17th century, much to the consternation of England’s own woolen textile manufacturers. These imports were initially restricted to high-end items such as calicoes (a type of printed cotton fabric) and muslins (a type of fine cotton fabric), but by the late 18th century, cheaper cotton was also being imported in large numbers. This led to a decline in the British woolen textile industry and an increase in demand for Indian cotton goods. The Industrial Revolution changed everything. With new technologies for spinning and weaving cotton coming into use, Britain’s textile manufacturers began producing cheaper and better-quality cotton.

Future of Cotton Textile Industry in India

The Indian cotton textile industry is one of the largest in the world, with a production capacity of over 5 million tonnes. In recent years, the industry has been facing challenges due to increased competition from cheaper imports, particularly from China. The Indian government has been providing support to the industry through various measures such as subsidies and duty-free imports of raw cotton. In spite of these measures, the industry is struggling to compete with Chinese manufacturers who have scale advantages and lower costs.

Looking ahead, the future of the Indian cotton textile industry depends on its ability to increase productivity and efficiency, while reducing costs. The industry will also need to focus on developing new products and applications for cotton that can compete with other synthetic fibers.

Sample Questions

Question 1: Show briefly how projects are grouped based on the raw materials they use.


Enterprises are classified based on the unrefined substances they utilize. They are classified into the agriculture, mineral, marine, and timberland sectors. Natural products made from plant and animal sources make up agro-based ventures. Some model industries include food handling, cotton material manufacturing, and leather manufacturing. A mineral-based business utilizes metals as natural substances. Unrefined substances are acquired from the ocean and sea into marine-based enterprises. This is the case with the ocean depth sector. Logging involves the use of natural resources found in forests in the backwoods.  Paper production and furniture manufacturing are examples.

Question 2: Give a motivation behind what reason the cotton material industry in India couldn’t rival the enterprises in the west at first.


A handwoven cotton fabric took years to develop and was costly. In consequence, the traditional cotton material industry could not compete with new materials plants in the West which produced modest but high quality textures.

Question 3: In the material business, what are the data source cycles and results?


Data sources, cycles, and outcomes comprise a modern framework. There are four kinds of information sources: natural substances, human work, transportation, power, and other frameworks. In the cycles, various exercises are incorporated that allow the natural substances to be transformed into finished items. The result is the finished product and the compensation derived from it.  If there should be an occurrence of the material business the sources of info might be cotton, human work, production line and transport cost. The cycles incorporate winding around, ginning, turning, painting and coloring. The result is the shirt we wear.

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