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Construct all possible BSTs for keys 1 to N

  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 01 Jul, 2021

In this article, first count of possible BST (Binary Search Trees)s is discussed, then the construction of all possible BSTs.

How many structurally unique BSTs for keys from 1..N? 

For example, for N = 2, there are 2 unique BSTs
     1               2  
      \            /
       2         1 

For N = 3, there are 5 possible BSTs
  1              3        3         2      1
    \           /        /        /  \      \
     3        2         1        1    3      2
    /       /            \                    \
   2      1               2                    3

We strongly recommend you to minimize your browser and try this yourself first.
We know that all node in left subtree are smaller than root and in right subtree are larger than root so if we have ith number as root, all numbers from 1 to i-1 will be in left subtree and i+1 to N will be in right subtree. If 1 to i-1 can form x different trees and i+1 to N can from y different trees then we will have x*y total trees when ith number is root and we also have N choices for root also so we can simply iterate from 1 to N for root and another loop for left and right subtree. If we take a closer look, we can notice that the count is basically n’th Catalan number. We have discussed different approaches to find n’th Catalan number here
  
How to construct all BST for keys 1..N? 
The idea is to maintain a list of roots of all BSTs. Recursively construct all possible left and right subtrees. Create a tree for every pair of left and right subtree and add the tree to list. Below is detailed algorithm. 
 

1) Initialize list of BSTs as empty.  
2) For every number i where i varies from 1 to N, do following
......a)  Create a new node with key as 'i', let this node be 'node'
......b)  Recursively construct list of all left subtrees.
......c)  Recursively construct list of all right subtrees.
3) Iterate for all left subtrees
   a) For current leftsubtree, iterate for all right subtrees
        Add current left and right subtrees to 'node' and add
        'node' to list.

Below is the implementation of the above idea. 

C++




// A C++ prgroam to contrcut all unique BSTs for keys from 1 to n
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
//  node structure
struct node
{
    int key;
    struct node *left, *right;
};
 
// A utility function to create a new BST node
struct node *newNode(int item)
{
    struct node *temp =  new node;
    temp->key = item;
    temp->left = temp->right = NULL;
    return temp;
}
 
// A utility function to do preorder traversal of BST
void preorder(struct node *root)
{
    if (root != NULL)
    {
        cout << root->key << " ";
        preorder(root->left);
        preorder(root->right);
    }
}
 
//  function for constructing trees
vector<struct node *> constructTrees(int start, int end)
{
    vector<struct node *> list;
 
    /*  if start > end   then subtree will be empty so returning NULL
        in the list */
    if (start > end)
    {
        list.push_back(NULL);
        return list;
    }
 
    /*  iterating through all values from start to end  for constructing\
        left and right subtree recursively  */
    for (int i = start; i <= end; i++)
    {
        /*  constructing left subtree   */
        vector<struct node *> leftSubtree  = constructTrees(start, i - 1);
 
        /*  constructing right subtree  */
        vector<struct node *> rightSubtree = constructTrees(i + 1, end);
 
        /*  now looping through all left and right subtrees and connecting
            them to ith root  below  */
        for (int j = 0; j < leftSubtree.size(); j++)
        {
            struct node* left = leftSubtree[j];
            for (int k = 0; k < rightSubtree.size(); k++)
            {
                struct node * right = rightSubtree[k];
                struct node * node = newNode(i);// making value i as root
                node->left = left;              // connect left subtree
                node->right = right;            // connect right subtree
                list.push_back(node);           // add this tree to list
            }
        }
    }
    return list;
}
 
// Driver Program to test above functions
int main()
{
    // Construct all possible BSTs
    vector<struct node *> totalTreesFrom1toN = constructTrees(1, 3);
 
 
    /*  Printing preorder traversal of all constructed BSTs   */
    cout << "Preorder traversals of all constructed BSTs are \n";
    for (int i = 0; i < totalTreesFrom1toN.size(); i++)
    {
        preorder(totalTreesFrom1toN[i]);
        cout << endl;
    }
    return 0;
}

Java




// A Java prgroam to contrcut all unique BSTs for keys from 1 to n
import java.util.ArrayList;
public class Main {
 
    //  function for constructing trees
    static ArrayList<Node> constructTrees(int start, int end)
    {
        ArrayList<Node> list=new ArrayList<>();
        /*  if start > end   then subtree will be empty so returning NULL
            in the list */
        if (start > end)
        {
            list.add(null);
            return list;
        }
   
        /*  iterating through all values from start to end  for constructing\
            left and right subtree recursively  */
        for (int i = start; i <= end; i++)
        {
            /*  constructing left subtree   */
            ArrayList<Node> leftSubtree  = constructTrees(start, i - 1);
   
            /*  constructing right subtree  */
            ArrayList<Node> rightSubtree = constructTrees(i + 1, end);
   
            /*  now looping through all left and right subtrees and connecting
                them to ith root  below  */
            for (int j = 0; j < leftSubtree.size(); j++)
            {
                Node left = leftSubtree.get(j);
                for (int k = 0; k < rightSubtree.size(); k++)
                {
                    Node right = rightSubtree.get(k);
                    Node node = new Node(i);        // making value i as root
                    node.left = left;              // connect left subtree
                    node.right = right;            // connect right subtree
                    list.add(node);                // add this tree to list
                }
            }
        }
        return list;
    }
 
    // A utility function to do preorder traversal of BST
    static void preorder(Node root)
    {
        if (root != null)
        {
            System.out.print(root.key+" ") ;
            preorder(root.left);
            preorder(root.right);
        }
    }
 
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        ArrayList<Node> totalTreesFrom1toN = constructTrees(1, 3);
        /*  Printing preorder traversal of all constructed BSTs   */
        System.out.println("Preorder traversals of all constructed BSTs are ");
        for (int i = 0; i < totalTreesFrom1toN.size(); i++)
        {
            preorder(totalTreesFrom1toN.get(i));
            System.out.println();
        }
    }
}
 
//  node structure
class Node
{
    int key;
    Node left, right;
    Node(int data)
    {
        this.key=data;
        left=right=null;
    }
};
//This code is contributed by Gaurav Tiwari

Python3




# Python3 prgroam to contrcut all unique
# BSTs for keys from 1 to n
 
# Binary Tree Node
""" A utility function to create a
new BST node """
class newNode:
 
    # Construct to create a newNode
    def __init__(self, item):
        self.key=item
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
 
# A utility function to do preorder
# traversal of BST
def preorder(root) :
 
    if (root != None) :
     
        print(root.key, end = " " )
        preorder(root.left)
        preorder(root.right)
     
# function for constructing trees
def constructTrees(start, end):
 
    list = []
 
    """ if start > end then subtree will be
        empty so returning None in the list """
    if (start > end) :
     
        list.append(None)
        return list
     
    """ iterating through all values from
        start to end for constructing
        left and right subtree recursively """
    for i in range(start, end + 1):
     
        """ constructing left subtree """
        leftSubtree = constructTrees(start, i - 1)
 
        """ constructing right subtree """
        rightSubtree = constructTrees(i + 1, end)
 
        """ now looping through all left and
            right subtrees and connecting
            them to ith root below """
        for j in range(len(leftSubtree)) :
            left = leftSubtree[j]
            for k in range(len(rightSubtree)):
                right = rightSubtree[k]
                node = newNode(i)   # making value i as root
                node.left = left    # connect left subtree
                node.right = right    # connect right subtree
                list.append(node)    # add this tree to list
    return list
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
 
    # Construct all possible BSTs
    totalTreesFrom1toN = constructTrees(1, 3)
 
    """ Printing preorder traversal of
        all constructed BSTs """
    print("Preorder traversals of all",
                "constructed BSTs are")
    for i in range(len(totalTreesFrom1toN)):
        preorder(totalTreesFrom1toN[i])
        print()
 
# This code is contributed by
# Shubham Singh(SHUBHAMSINGH10)

C#




// C# prgroam to contrcut all
// unique BSTs for keys from 1 to n
using System.Collections;
using System;
 
class GFG
{
 
    // function for constructing trees
    static ArrayList constructTrees(int start, int end)
    {
        ArrayList list = new ArrayList();
         
        /* if start > end then subtree will
        be empty so returning NULL
        in the list */
        if (start > end)
        {
            list.Add(null);
            return list;
        }
     
        /* iterating through all values from
        start to end for constructing\
        left and right subtree recursively */
        for (int i = start; i <= end; i++)
        {
            /* constructing left subtree */
            ArrayList leftSubtree = constructTrees(start, i - 1);
     
            /* constructing right subtree */
            ArrayList rightSubtree = constructTrees(i + 1, end);
     
            /* now looping through all left and
            right subtrees and connecting
            them to ith root below */
            for (int j = 0; j < leftSubtree.Count; j++)
            {
                Node left = (Node)leftSubtree[j];
                for (int k = 0; k < rightSubtree.Count; k++)
                {
                    Node right = (Node)rightSubtree[k];
                     
                    // making value i as root
                    Node node = new Node(i);
                     
                    // connect left subtree
                    node.left = left;
                     
                    // connect right subtree
                    node.right = right;    
                     
                    // Add this tree to list
                    list.Add(node);        
                }
            }
        }
        return list;
    }
 
    // A utility function to do
    // preorder traversal of BST
    static void preorder(Node root)
    {
        if (root != null)
        {
            Console.Write(root.key+" ") ;
            preorder(root.left);
            preorder(root.right);
        }
    }
 
    // Driver code
    public static void Main(String []args)
    {
        ArrayList totalTreesFrom1toN = constructTrees(1, 3);
         
        /* Printing preorder traversal
        of all constructed BSTs */
        Console.WriteLine("Preorder traversals of all" +
                                "constructed BSTs are ");
        for (int i = 0; i < totalTreesFrom1toN.Count; i++)
        {
            preorder((Node)totalTreesFrom1toN[i]);
            Console.WriteLine();
        }
    }
     
// node structure
public class Node
{
    public int key;
    public Node left, right;
    public Node(int data)
    {
        this.key=data;
        left=right=null;
    }
};
}
 
// This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

Javascript




<script>
 
 
// node structure
class Node
{
    constructor(data)
    {
        this.key = data;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
};
 
// Javascript prgroam to contrcut all
// unique BSTs for keys from 1 to n
// function for constructing trees
function constructTrees(start, end)
{
    var list = [];
     
    /* if start > end then subtree will
    be empty so returning NULL
    in the list */
    if (start > end)
    {
        list.push(null);
        return list;
    }
 
    /* iterating through all values from
    start to end for constructing\
    left and right subtree recursively */
    for (var i = start; i <= end; i++)
    {
        /* constructing left subtree */
        var leftSubtree = constructTrees(start, i - 1);
 
        /* constructing right subtree */
        var rightSubtree = constructTrees(i + 1, end);
 
        /* now looping through all left and
        right subtrees and connecting
        them to ith root below */
        for (var j = 0; j < leftSubtree.length; j++)
        {
            var left = leftSubtree[j];
            for (var k = 0; k < rightSubtree.length; k++)
            {
                var right = rightSubtree[k];
                 
                // making value i as root
                var node = new Node(i);
                 
                // connect left subtree
                node.left = left;
                 
                // connect right subtree
                node.right = right;    
                 
                // push this tree to list
                list.push(node);        
            }
        }
    }
    return list;
}
 
// A utility function to do
// preorder traversal of BST
function preorder(root)
{
    if (root != null)
    {
        document.write(root.key+" ") ;
        preorder(root.left);
        preorder(root.right);
    }
}
// Driver code
var totalTreesFrom1toN = constructTrees(1, 3);
 
/* Printing preorder traversal
of all constructed BSTs */
document.write("Preorder traversals of all" +
                        "constructed BSTs are<br>");
for (var i = 0; i < totalTreesFrom1toN.length; i++)
{
    preorder(totalTreesFrom1toN[i]);
    document.write("<br>");
}
 
 
 
</script>

Output:



Preorder traversals of all constructed BSTs are
1 2 3
1 3 2
2 1 3
3 1 2
3 2 1

This article is contributed by Utkarsh Trivedi. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above
 

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