# Concatenating Objects in R Programming – combine() Function

In R programming, coercion function c() and combine() function are similar to each other but are different in a way. combine() functions acts like c() and unlist() functions but uses consistent dplyr coercion rules. Moreover, combine() function is used to combine factors in R programming. In this article, we’ll see the implementation of combine() and c() function with same outputs and different outputs on the same operation.

Syntax: combine(x, y, …)

Parameters:
x, y, …. are vectors to combine

Example 1:

In this example, we’ll see the same output of both these functions on same operation.

 `# Package required ` `install.packages``(``"dplyr"``) ` ` `  `# Load the library ` `library``(dplyr) ` ` `  `x <- ``c``(1, 2, 3) ` `y <- ``c``(4, 5, 6) ` ` `  `# Using c() function ` `cat``(``"Using c() function:\n"``) ` `c``(x, y) ` ` `  `cat``(``"\n"``) ` `# Using combine() function ` `cat``(``"Using combine() function:\n"``) ` `combine``(x, y)`

Output:

```Using c() function:
 1 2 3 4 5 6

Using combine() function:
 1 2 3 4 5 6```

Example 2:
In this example, we’ll see the different outputs of both these functions on the same operation.

 `library``(dplyr) ` ` `  `x <- ``factor``(``c``(``"a"``, ``"a"``, ``"b"``, ``"c"``)) ` `y <- ``factor``(``c``(``"b"``, ``"a"``, ``"c"``, ``"b"``)) ` ` `  `# Using c() function ` `cat``(``"Using c() function:\n"``) ` `c``(x, y) ` ` `  `# Using combine() function ` `cat``(``"\n"``) ` `cat``(``"Using combine() function:\n"``) ` `combine``(x, y)`

Output:

```Using c() function:
 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 2

Using combine() function:
 a a b c b a c b
Levels: a b c```

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