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Computer Organization | Micro-Operation

In computer central processing units, micro-operations (also known as micro-ops) are the functional or atomic, operations of a processor. These are low level instructions used in some designs to implement complex machine instructions. They generally perform operations on data stored in one or more registers. They transfer data between registers or between external buses of the CPU, also performs arithmetic and logical operations on registers. In executing a program, operation of a computer consists of a sequence of instruction cycles, with one machine instruction per cycle. Each instruction cycle is made up of a number of smaller units – Fetch, Indirect, Execute and Interrupt cycles. Each of these cycles involves series of steps, each of which involves the processor registers. These steps are referred as micro-operations. the prefix micro refers to the fact that each of the step is very simple and accomplishes very little. Figure below depicts the concept being discussed here.

Miniature tasks are performed on the information put away in the registers inside the computer chip. They are utilized to perform math and intelligent activities, as well as to move information among registers and memory. A few instances of miniature tasks include:

2.Store: This miniature activity stores information from a register into memory.

3.Add: This miniature activity adds two qualities and stores the outcome in a register.

4.Subtract: This miniature activity deducts two qualities and stores the outcome in a register.

5.And: This miniature activity plays out a legitimate AND procedure on two qualities and stores the outcome in a register.

6.Or: This miniature activity plays out a legitimate OR procedure on two qualities and stores the outcome in a register.

7.Not: This miniature activity plays out a legitimate NOT procedure on a worth and stores the outcome in a register.

8.Shift: This miniature activity moves the pieces of a worth to the left or right.

9.Rotate: This miniature activity pivots the pieces of a worth to the left or right.

Miniature activities are consolidated to frame more elevated level guidelines and tasks. For instance, an option activity might be executed utilizing various miniature tasks, including a heap activity to stack the qualities into registers, an add activity to play out the option, and a store activity to store the outcome in memory.

Summary: Execution of a program consists of sequential execution of instructions. Each instruction is executed during an instruction cycle made up of shorter sub-cycles(example – fetch, indirect, execute, interrupt). The performance of each sub-cycle involves one or more shorter operations, that is, micro-operations. In my next article I will give detailed information of each Instruction Cycle.

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