# Computer Networks | Set 2

Following Questions have been asked in GATE 2012 CS exam.

1) Consider a source computer (S) transmitting a file of size 106 bits to a destination computer (D) over a network of two routers (R1 and R2) and three links (L1, L2 and L3). L1 connects S to R1;L2 connects R1 to R2; and L3 connects R2 to D. Let each link be of length 100km. Assume signals travel over each link at a speed of 10^8 meters per second. Assume that the link bandwidth on each link is 1Mbps. Let the file be broken down into 1000 packets each of size 1000 bits. Find the total sum of transmission and propagation delays in transmitting the file from S to D?
(A) 1005ms
(B) 1010ms
(C) 3000ms
(D) 3003ms

Propagation delay to travel from S to R1 = (Distance) / (Link Speed) = 10^5/10^8 = 1ms
Total prorogation delay to travel from S to D = 3*1 ms = 3ms

Total Ttransmission delay for 1 packet = 3 * (Number of Bits) / Bandwidth = 3*(1000/10^6) = 3ms.

The first packet will take 6ms to reach D. While first packet was reaching D, other packets must have been processing in parallel. So D will receive remaining packets 1 packet per 1 ms from R2. So remaining 999 packets will take 999 ms. And total time will be 999 + 6 = 1005 ms

2) Consider an instance of TCP’s Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease(AIMD) algorithm where the window size at the start of the slow start phase is 2 MSS and the threshold at the start of the first transmission is 8 MSS. Assume that a time out occurs during the fifth transmission. Find the congestion window size at the end of the tenth transmission.
(A) 8 MSS
(B) 14 MSS
(C) 7 MSS
(D) 12 MSS

Since Slow Start is used, window size is increased by the number of segments successfully sent. This happens until either threshold value is reached or time out occurs.
In both of the above situations AIMD is used to avoid congestion. If threshold is reached, window size will be increased linearly. If there is timeout, window size will be reduced to half.

Window size for 1st transmission = 2 MSS
Window size for 2nd transmission = 4 MSS
Window size for 3rd transmission = 8 MSS
threshold reached, increase linearly (according to AIMD)
Window size for 4th transmission = 9 MSS
Window size for 5th transmission = 10 MSS
time out occurs, resend 5th with window size starts with as slow start.
Window size for 6th transmission = 2 MSS
Window size for 7th transmission = 4 MSS
threshold reached, now increase linearly (according to AIMD)
Additive Increase: 5 MSS (since 8 MSS isn’t permissible anymore)
Window size for 8th transmission = 5 MSS
Window size for 9th transmission = 6 MSS
Window size for 10th transmission = 7 MSS

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