Computer Network | Internet Service Provider (ISP) hierarchy

Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company which provides internet connection to end user, but there are basically three levels of ISP. There are 3 levels of Internet Service Provider (ISP): Tier-1 ISP, Tier-2 ISP, and Tier-3 ISP.



These are explained as following below.



  1. Tier-1 ISP:
    These ISPs are at the top of the hierarchy and they have a global reach they do not pay for any internet traffic through there network instead lower-tier ISPs have to pay a cost for passing there traffic from one geolocation to another which is not under the reach of that ISPs. Generally, ISPs at the same level connect to each other and make allow free traffic passes for each other these ISPs are called peers. Due to this cost is saved. They build infrastructure, such as the Atlantic Internet sea cables, to provide traffic to all other Internet providers, not end users.

    Examples:
    Some examples of tier 1 Internet providers:

    Cogent Communications,
    Hibernia Networks,
    AT&T

  2. Tier-2 ISP:
    These ISPs is a service provider who connects between tier 1 and tier 3 ISPs. They have regional or country reach and behave just like Tier-1 ISP for Tier-3 ISP.

    Examples:
    Examples of tier 2 ISPs:

    Vodafone,
    Easynet,
    British Telekom 

  3. Tier-3 ISP:
    These ISPs are closest to the end users and helps them to connect to the internet by charging some amount. These ISPs work on purchasing model. These ISPs have to pay some cost to Tier-2 ISPs based on traffic generated.

    Examples:
    Examples of Tier-3 ISPs:

    Comcast.
    Deutsche Telekom.
    Verizon Communications 


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