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# Computer Graphics Circle Generation Algorithm

• Last Updated : 28 Jan, 2023

Computer graphics provide a powerful tool for creating and manipulating graphical objects such as lines, circles, and polygons. A circle is one of the fundamental shapes used in computer graphics and it is generated through a circle generation algorithm. A circle generation algorithm is an algorithm used to create a circle on a computer screen. It is used in various applications such as computer-aided design (CAD) software, animation software, games, and scientific visualization.

## Algorithms for Generating Circles

There are several algorithms used for generating circles on a computer screen. These algorithms can be divided into two main categories: analytical algorithms and iterative algorithms.

## Analytical Algorithms

Analytical algorithms are algorithms that use mathematical equations to generate a circle. These algorithms have the advantage of being fast and accurate but they have the disadvantage of being more complex to understand and implement. The two main analytical algorithms used for circle generation are the midpoint circle algorithm and Bresenham’s circle algorithm.

#### 1. Midpoint Circle Algorithm

The midpoint circle algorithm is the most commonly used analytical algorithm for circle generation. It is based on the midpoint theorem which states that if the points along the circumference of a circle are equidistant from the center of the circle, then the points will lie on the circle. The algorithm uses this theorem to generate a circle by calculating the points which are equidistant from the center of the circle and then connecting the points to form a circle.

#### 2. Bresenham’s Circle Algorithm

Bresenham’s circle algorithm is an extension of the midpoint circle algorithm. It uses the same midpoint theorem but instead of calculating the points which are equidistant from the center of the circle, it uses an iterative approach to calculate the points. This algorithm is more efficient than the midpoint circle algorithm and is often used for generating circles in computer graphics.

## Iterative Algorithms

Iterative algorithms are algorithms that use an iterative approach to generate a circle. These algorithms are simpler to understand and implement but they are slower and less accurate than the analytical algorithms.

The two main iterative algorithms used for circle generation are the polar coordinates algorithm and the incremental algorithm.

## Polar Coordinates Algorithm

The polar coordinates algorithm is an iterative algorithm that uses the fact that a circle can be represented as a set of points in polar coordinates. The algorithm uses the polar coordinates of the points along the circumference of the circle to calculate the points and then connects the points to form a circle.

### Incremental Algorithm

The incremental algorithm is an iterative algorithm that uses an iterative approach to generate a circle. It starts with the center of the circle and then calculates the points along the circumference of the circle by incrementally increasing the angle. The algorithm then connects the points to form a circle.

## Conclusion

Circle generation algorithms are used for creating circles on a computer screen. These algorithms can be divided into two main categories: analytical algorithms and iterative algorithms. Each algorithm has its own advantages and disadvantages and the choice of algorithm depends on the application.

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