On some rare machines where branching is expensive, the below obvious approach to find minimum can be slow as it uses branching.

`/* The obvious approach to find minimum (involves branching) */` `int` `min(` `int` `x, ` `int` `y) ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `(x < y) ? x : y ` `} ` |

Below are the methods to get minimum(or maximum) without using branching. Typically, the obvious approach is best, though.

**Method 1(Use XOR and comparison operator)**

Minimum of x and y will be

y ^ ((x ^ y) & -(x < y))

It works because if x < y, then -(x = y, then -(x < y) will be all zeros, so r = y ^ ((x ^ y) & 0) = y. On some machines, evaluating (x < y) as 0 or 1 requires a branch instruction, so there may be no advantage.

To find the maximum, use

x ^ ((x ^ y) & -(x < y));

## C

`#include<stdio.h> ` ` ` `/*Function to find minimum of x and y*/` `int` `min(` `int` `x, ` `int` `y) ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `y ^ ((x ^ y) & -(x < y)); ` `} ` ` ` `/*Function to find maximum of x and y*/` `int` `max(` `int` `x, ` `int` `y) ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `x ^ ((x ^ y) & -(x < y)); ` `} ` ` ` `/* Driver program to test above functions */` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `x = 15; ` ` ` `int` `y = 6; ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"Minimum of %d and %d is "` `, x, y); ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"%d"` `, min(x, y)); ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"\nMaximum of %d and %d is "` `, x, y); ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"%d"` `, max(x, y)); ` ` ` `getchar` `(); ` `} ` |

## Python3

`# Function to find minimum of x and y ` ` ` `def` `min` `(x, y): ` ` ` ` ` `return` `y ^ ((x ^ y) & ` `-` `(x < y)) ` ` ` ` ` `# Function to find maximum of x and y ` `def` `max` `(x, y): ` ` ` ` ` `return` `x ^ ((x ^ y) & ` `-` `(x < y)) ` ` ` ` ` `# Driver program to test above functions ` `x ` `=` `15` `y ` `=` `6` `print` `(` `"Minimum of"` `, x, ` `"and"` `, y, ` `"is"` `, end` `=` `" "` `) ` `print` `(` `min` `(x, y)) ` `print` `(` `"Maximum of"` `, x, ` `"and"` `, y, ` `"is"` `, end` `=` `" "` `) ` `print` `(` `max` `(x, y)) ` ` ` `# This code is contributed ` `# by Smitha Dinesh Semwal ` |

## PHP

`<?php ` `// PHP program to Compute the minimum ` `// or maximum of two integers without ` `// branching ` ` ` `// Function to find minimum ` `// of x and y ` `function` `m_in(` `$x` `, ` `$y` `) ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `$y` `^ ((` `$x` `^ ` `$y` `) & ` ` ` `- (` `$x` `< ` `$y` `)); ` `} ` ` ` `// Function to find maximum ` `// of x and y ` `function` `m_ax(` `$x` `, ` `$y` `) ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `$x` `^ ((` `$x` `^ ` `$y` `) & ` ` ` `- (` `$x` `< ` `$y` `)); ` `} ` ` ` `// Driver Code ` `$x` `= 15; ` `$y` `= 6; ` `echo` `"Minimum of"` `,` `" "` `, ` `$x` `,` `" "` `,` `"and"` `, ` ` ` `" "` `,` `$y` `,` `" "` `,` `" is "` `,` `" "` `; ` ` ` `echo` `m_in(` `$x` `, ` `$y` `); ` ` ` `echo` `"\nMaximum of"` `,` `" "` `,` `$x` `,` `" "` `, ` ` ` `"and"` `,` `" "` `,` `$y` `,` `" "` `, ` `" is "` `; ` ` ` `echo` `m_ax(` `$x` `, ` `$y` `); ` ` ` `// This code is contributed by anuj_67. ` `?> ` ` ` ` ` ` ` |

Output:

Minimum of 15 and 6 is 6 Maximum of 15 and 6 is 15

**Method 2(Use subtraction and shift)**

If we know that

INT_MIN <= (x - y) <= INT_MAX

, then we can use the following, which are faster because (x – y) only needs to be evaluated once.

Minimum of x and y will be

y + ((x - y) & ((x - y) >>(sizeof(int) * CHAR_BIT - 1)))

This method shifts the subtraction of x and y by 31 (if size of integer is 32). If (x-y) is smaller than 0, then (x -y)>>31 will be 1. If (x-y) is greater than or equal to 0, then (x -y)>>31 will be 0.

So if x >= y, we get minimum as y + (x-y)&0 which is y.

If x < y, we get minimum as y + (x-y)&1 which is x.

Similarly, to find the maximum use

x - ((x - y) & ((x - y) >> (sizeof(int) * CHAR_BIT - 1)))

`#include<stdio.h> ` `#define CHAR_BIT 8 ` ` ` `/*Function to find minimum of x and y*/` `int` `min(` `int` `x, ` `int` `y) ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `y + ((x - y) & ((x - y) >> ` ` ` `(` `sizeof` `(` `int` `) * CHAR_BIT - 1))); ` `} ` ` ` `/*Function to find maximum of x and y*/` `int` `max(` `int` `x, ` `int` `y) ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `x - ((x - y) & ((x - y) >> ` ` ` `(` `sizeof` `(` `int` `) * CHAR_BIT - 1))); ` `} ` ` ` `/* Driver program to test above functions */` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `x = 15; ` ` ` `int` `y = 6; ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"Minimum of %d and %d is "` `, x, y); ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"%d"` `, min(x, y)); ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"\nMaximum of %d and %d is "` `, x, y); ` ` ` `printf` `(` `"%d"` `, max(x, y)); ` ` ` `getchar` `(); ` `} ` |

Note that the 1989 ANSI C specification doesn’t specify the result of signed right-shift, so above method is not portable. If exceptions are thrown on overflows, then the values of x and y should be unsigned or cast to unsigned for the subtractions to avoid unnecessarily throwing an exception, however the right-shift needs a signed operand to produce all one bits when negative, so cast to signed there.

**Source:**

http://graphics.stanford.edu/~seander/bithacks.html#IntegerMinOrMax