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Components of Environment

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  • Last Updated : 28 Apr, 2022
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The term “environment” refers to everything in our immediate surroundings, including both living and nonliving items such as soil, water, animals, and plants that adapt to their surroundings. It is a natural gift that aids in the feeding of life on Earth. The environment is important to the survival of life on Earth. An ecosystem is a component of the Biosphere that influences the health of the entire planet. It encompasses all living and nonliving organisms in the environment. The components of the environment are primarily divided into two categories:

  1. Biotic environment: Animals, birds, woods, insects, reptiles, and microorganisms such as algae, bacteria, fungi, and viruses are all included.
  2. Abiotic environment: It comprises everything that isn’t alive, such as air, clouds, dust, land, mountains, rivers, temperature, humidity, water, water vapor, sand, and so on.

Biotic Factors

When used together, they are referred to as living creatures. As a result, biotic components might also be defined as all living organisms on the planet. Examples include plants, animals, people, decomposers, yeast, insects, and other species. All of these biotic components work together to create new generations, or to reproduce new organisms, in order to keep the food chain stable. Because biotic variables take the shape of living organisms, their examples must take the form of live organisms as well.


The organisms who are capable of producing their own food through photosynthesis are called producers. Plants, algae, and microbes are examples. Abiotic variables such as sunlight, humidity, and water provide them with energy. All of these elements are necessary for optimal food synthesis. Chlorophyll is present in the procedure, and they absorb all of the abiotic elements necessary for food synthesis. Producers use a portion of synthesized food solely for their own healthy functioning and growth.


Consumers are organisms that consume the products of producers. Consumers are classified into three or more categories.

  1. Primary Consumers: Primary customers are those who immediately benefit from procedures. For instance, a buffalo, a goat, and so on.
  2. Secondary consumers: Secondary consumers are those who eat the food of primary consumers. Lion, tigers, and other animals are examples.


Decomposers are living creatures that break down or decompose the dead carcasses of plants and animals. In nature, they are heterotrophic. E.g. Fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms.


Detritivores are creatures that feed on dead and rotting organisms. After eating, they have the least amount of energy.

Abiotic Factor

Abiotic factors are non-living components of an ecosystem. They are important in designing ecosystems since the interaction of biotic and abiotic forces is required for the ecosystem’s stability. Abiotic elements include air, weather, water, temperature, humidity, altitude, pH, soil level, varieties of soil, and more, as well as water flow rate and depth.

Energy Flow In the Ecosystem

Energy flow is the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next, and it is always unidirectional. This indicates that energy flows from the producer’s primary consumers to the secondary Consumer’s decomposer’s trash in sequential order. Because of this, energy cannot be redirected. It is turned into minerals at the end of the energy flow, which can be used again and again. At each trophic level, just 10% of total energy is consumed. As a result, autotrophic organisms receive the most energy compared to heterotrophs, decomposers, and other organisms because they feed directly on producers.

Abiotic Factors of an Ecosystem

  1. Climate: The meteorological conditions and overall temperature of an ecosystem are referred to as climate. This is important for the ecosystem’s upkeep since it regulates temperature and weather conditions. Because species in a given ecosystem adapt to fit that habitat, even minor changes in climate can have a significant impact on the organisms’ life.
  2. pH Balance: The general degree of acidity or alkalinity in the environment is referred to as the pH balance of an ecosystem. It is a scientific method for determining the acidity, neutrality, or alkalinity of a combination or solution.  Water has pH value of 7, which is neutral. The pH balance of acidic combinations is less than 7, while the pH balance of alkaline mixtures is greater than 7. Many critters, plants, and bacteria cannot survive in certain pH ranges, which has an impact on the organisms in an ecosystem.
  3. Light: Photosynthesis is the primary source of energy for plants, which means that all plants require a certain amount of light to produce their own food. Some plants in gloomy habitats, such as those found deep in the oceans where light doesn’t reach, have developed to the point where they can survive with very little light.
  4. Water Currents: Water currents play a critical function in the regulation of an underwater or ocean ecosystem. Water currents are both one of the most vital and valuable components of an oceanic environment and one of the most damaging. They’re crucial because they disperse minerals, nutrients, heat, and oxygen, among other things. Strong ocean currents, on the other hand, can uproot and take away plants and other species, destroying part of the ecosystem while also delivering a source of food to another.

Sample Problems

Question 1: Define ecosystem and name its components.


An ecosystem is formed when the living and non-living components of a given area interact with one another. Biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components make up an ecosystem (non-living)

Question 2: What is ten per cent law?


According to the ten percent law, only ten percent of the energy available at one trophic level is transmitted to the next.

Question 3: Why is it that in every food chain, the initial trophic level is always a green plant?


Chlorophyll is a pigment found in green plants that catches solar energy and turns it into chemical energy that may be used by the members of the next trophic level. As a result, a green plant is usually the initial trophic level in a food chain.

Question 4: Why is improper garbage disposal such a blight on the environment?


Waste that is not properly disposed of pollutes our environment and can harm living organisms.

Question 5: What role does ozone play? What is the cause of its depletion?


The ozone layer shields us from dangerous UV rays. Because to the excessive use of chlorofluorocarbons, it is becoming depleted (CFCs).

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