There are various types of Operating System used throughout the world and this depends mainly on the type of operations performed. These Operating Systems are manufactured by large multi-national companies like Microsoft, Apple etc. Let’s look at the few most commonly used OS in the real world:
Generally referred to as the Microsoft Windows, these OS are manufactured and developed by the tech-giant Microsoft and are the most commonly used OS for personal computers and to some extent in mobile phones or the Windows phone. Microsoft Windows is a collection of many graphics oriented operating system, first developed and launched in 1985 by the name Windows 1.0. When it started it had the aim to provide a graphical shell to the then famous MS-DOS which had a character user interface, but it didn’t gained much popularity then. Slowly with the implementation of innovative features, the OS gained popularity and soon dominated the market of Computer Industry, owing to its freedom of use and user-friendly environment. Let’s look at the advantages and disadvantages of using Microsoft Windows.
- Hardware compatibility: Almost every computer hardware manufacturing industry supports Microsoft Windows. This makes the users buy any random computer manufacturing brand and get the latest version of pre-loaded Microsoft Windows 10 in it.
- Pre-loaded and available Softwares: Windows comes with much user-friendly software to make the everyday task easier and if the software is not available then one can easily get it from the Internet and run it.
- Ease of Use: Microsoft Windows has developed by far the most user-friendly OS in the market, keeping in mind that it serves the purpose of most types of market in the world. Its the most preferred OS for personal computers.
- Game Runner: Windows supports a plethora of games manufactured till date and comes with all the supporting base software to drive the game engine. So its the most popular OS among the game lovers.
- Expensive: Microsoft is a closed source OS and the license cost is really high. It’s not possible for every class of society to buy new license every time one is expired. The latest Windows 10 costs around 6000 to 8000 INR.
- Poor Security: Windows is much more prone to virus and malware in comparison to other OS like Linux or Mac in the market.
- Not reliable: Windows starts to lag with time and eventually needs booting every time and now to get back the initial speed.
There are many versions of Windows that has been developed since 1985, but few that revolutionised the industry of Operating System are:
- Windows 95
- Windows 98
- Windows NT
- Windows XP
- Windows Vista
- Windows 7
- Windows 8
- Windows 8.1
- Windows 10(Latest)
According to Net Applications, that tracks use based on web use, Windows is the most-used operating system family for personal computers as of July 2017 with close to 90% usage share and rising.
Developed in 1970 in the Bell Lab research centre UNIX became a multitasking and multiuser operating system, reaching numerous platforms for use. It was developed by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and few others and later AT&T licensed UNIX to the development of many variants of Unix, serving academic and business purpose at the University of California, Berkley Software Distribution, IBM, Microsoft and Sun Microsystem. The OS is totally written in C language allowing it to serve in various platforms. It provides a set of simple and dedicated tools to perform a well-defined task using basic functions, shell scripting and command languages. As of 2014, the Unix version with the largest installed base is Apple’s macOS.
- The OS is available on a wide variety of machines that are the most truly portable operating system.
- It has a Very efficient virtual memory system, which allows many programs to run simultaneously with a modest amount of physical memory and time.
- The OS was primarily built to serve the complete multitasking purpose without crashing of data, and it served well along with the protected memory.
- Has a high-level authentication system along with a fully secured environment.
- This OS was primarily designed for the programmers and techies and not for personal and casual use.
- It is a command-driven OS with commands being supplied by the shell kernel and often has cryptic names which the normal users find difficult to keep up with.
- To work comfortably with the UNIX system, one needs to understand the main design features and how to command and interact with the OS.
Primarily derived from the concept of Unix, Linux became the most-prominent free and open-source OS available to everyone in the world. It is built around the Linux kernel and served for both the desktop and server use. Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture but since then it was ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. It is also the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 Supercomputers. The top Linux OS are Ubuntu, Fedora, OpenSUSE, RedHat and many more.
- The OS is open-source and available free of cost to every computer user. There are large repositories from which anyone can freely download high quality software for almost any task.
- Linux provides high performance for a longer time and does not require a periodic reboot to maintain the system.
- It is one of the most secured OS and does not permit any unwanted malware and virus into the system.
- It is designed to multitask and can perform multiple processes at the same time, without hampering the performance of the OS.
- The OS is highly compatible and flexible to run on all modern PC’s and network.
- It is not as user-friendly as Windows and users need to struggle for a few days before adapting to the behaviour of OS.
- It is not meant for gamers since it does not support any high graphics game.
- Since there are no standard editions available for Linux, it comes with many versions, confusing the users of what to adapt and what not.
This OS was originally developed by Sun Microsystems and is a type of Unix OS. Solaris was developed as proprietary software.
Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. It is registered as compliant with the Single UNIX Specification. As of today, Solaris is supported by HP, Dell, Intel and Fujitsu Siemens architecture. OpenSolaris is the available open source version of Solaris OS. Oracle Solaris 10 is latest version of Solaris OS.
- It provides good and high performance.
- It provides complete protection against virus and malware.
- It is a multitasking OS and allows multiple tasks at the same time.
- Known for its good and powerful backup tools.
- Although the OS provides a graphic interface, it is not as good as other graphical user interfaces.
- The OS is available free of cost but the updates are not available for free, so not completely open-source.
- The OS is not user-friendly.
It stands for Bharat Operating System Solutions designed specifically by India for Indians. It was developed by C-DAC(Centre for Development of Advanced Computing), Chennai, to benefit the Free/Open Source Softwares in India. It has enhanced Desktop Environment integrated with multiple Indian language support and other software. This project has been approved, supported and endorsed by Government of India. The OS is the product of Linux Distribution and has been derived from Debian Linux. BOSS Linux provides advanced features such as web server, proxy server, database server, mail server, network server, file and print server, SMS Service and many more. The latest versions are called BOSS 5.0 (ANOKHA) and BOSS 6.0 (ANOOP).
- It is easily available and free to install and use.
- It is a very stable OS and provides free access to many software.
- It supports multiple Indian languages, so user-friendly at least for Indian society.
- Since it is linux OS, it does not support Windows programs and shares the same disadvantages as other Linux based OS.