**Question 1. A man got a 10% increase in his salary. If his new salary is 1,54,000, find his original salary.**

**Solution:**

Let the initial salary was 100.

He got 10 % increment so increased salary is 110.

Increased salary(110%) is equal to 154000

Base salary(100%) is equal to 154000 × (100 / 110) = 140000

Hence his original salary was 140000.

**Question 2. On Sunday 845 people went to the Zoo. On Monday only 169 people went. What is the per cent decrease in the people visiting the Zoo on Monday?**

**Solution:**

Given that On Sunday 845 people went to the Zoo.

On Monday only 169 people went.

Decrease in people = 845 – 169 = 676

Percentage decrease = (decrease / initial quantity) 100

= (676 / 845) × 100

= (0.8) × 100

= 80%

Hence percent decrease in the people visiting the Zoo on Monday is 80%.

**Question 3. A shopkeeper buys 80 articles for 2,400 and sells them for a profit of 16%. Find the selling price of one article.**

**Solution:**

A shopkeeper buys 80 articles for 2,400

Cost price of one article is 2400 / 80 = 30

Percentage Profit = 16

Profit = (C.P. × Percentage Profit) / 100

Profit = (30 × 16) / 100

Profit = 4.8

Selling price of one article = C.P. + Profit

= (30 + 4.80)

= 34.80

Hence the selling price of one article is 34.80.

**Question 4. The cost of an article was 15,500. 450 were spent on its repairs. If it is sold for a profit of 15%, find the selling price of the article.**

**Solution:**

Total cost of an article after repair = Cost + repair expenses

= 15500 + 450

= 15950 rupees

Profit percent = 15

Profit = (C.P. × Percentage Profit) / 100

Profit = (15950 × 15) / 100 = 2392.50

Selling price of the article = C.P. + Profit

= (15950 + 2392.50)

= 18342.50

Hence the selling price of the article is 18342.50

**Question 5. A VCR and TV were bought for 8,000 each. The shopkeeper made a loss of 4% on the VCR and a profit of 8% on the TV. Find the gain or loss percent on the whole transaction.**

**Solution:**

C.P. of a VCR = 8000

C.P. of a TV = 8000

As the cost price of both the article are same so profit and loss calculated on same cost price would be same

so effective profit / loss = (8% profit – 4% loss)

= 4% profit

So gain = C.P. (profit / 100)

= 8000 (4 / 100)

= 320

Hence the gain percent on the whole transaction is 320.

Profit % on the whole transaction = (Profit / Total CP) x 100

= (320 / 16000) x 100

= 2%

**Question 6. During a sale, a shop offered a discount of 10% on the **market** prices of all the items. What would a customer have to pay for a pair of jeans marked at 1450 and two shirts marked at 850 each?**

**Solution:**

As the discount is offered on all the article by the shopkeeper so discount can be calculated from total marked price.

So Total marked price = (1,450 + 2 × 850)

= (1,450 + 1,700)

= 3,150

Given that, discount percentage = 10%

Discount = (3150 ×10 ) / 100 = 315

Also, Sale price = Marked price – Discount

Sale price = (3150 − 315)

= 2835

Hence the customer will have to pay 2,835.

**Question 7. A milkman sold two of his buffaloes for 20,000 each. On one he made a gain of 5% and on the other a loss of 10%. Find his overall gain or loss. (Hint: Find CP of each)**

**Solution:**

Let us consider C.P. of buffaloes are 100 each

On one he made a gain of 5%

if C.P. is 100 Then S.P.= 105

So cost price = (C.P. / S.P.) 20000

= (100 / 105) 20000

= 19,047.62

on the other a loss of 10 %

if C.P. is 100 Then S.P. = 90

∴ C.P. of other buffalo = (100 / 90) × 20000

= 22222.22

Total C.P. = 19047.62 + 22222.22

= 41269.84

Total S.P. = 20000 + 20000 = 40000

Loss = 41269.84 − 40000 = 1269.84

So the overall loss of milkman was 1269.84

**Question 8. The price of a TV is ` 13,000. The sales tax charged on it is at the rate of 12%. Find the amount that Vinod will have to pay if he buys it.**

**Solution:**

Let C.P. is 100

the tax to be paid = 12

The tax to be paid will be on 13000 = (12 / 100) × 13000

= 1560

Required amount to pay = Cost + Sales Tax

= 13000 + 1560

= 14560

Hence Vinod will have to pay 14,560 for the T.V.

**Question 9. Arun bought a pair of skates at a sale where the discount **is given** was 20%. If the amount he pays is 1,600, find the marked price.**

**Solution:**

Let the marked price of the article is 100

Discount given = 20

S.P. = (100 – 20) = 80

when assumed S.P. is 80 actual S.P.is 1600

then marked price 100 is =1600 × (100 / 80)

= 2000

Hence the marked price was 2000.

**Question 10. I purchased a hair-dryer for 5,400 including 8% VAT. Find the price before VAT was added.**

**Solution:**

Let the original price is 100

then price including VAT will be 108.

When price including VAT is 108

Then original price = 100

When price including VAT is 5400, original price = (100 / 108) × 5400

= 5000

Hence the price of the hair-dryer before the addition of VAT was 5000.

**Question 11. An article was purchased for 1239 including **a **GST of 18%. Find the price of the article before GST was added?**

**Solution:**

Let the original price of article excluding GST was 100

After including GST purchased price will be 118

So 118% ( including GST ) = 1239

100% ( excluding GST ) = 1239 × (100 / 118)

= 1050

Hence the price of the article before GST was added was 1050.